The Ras/Raf/MEK (mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase)/ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) pathway is at the heart of signalling networks that govern proliferation, differentiation and cell survival. Although the basic regulatory steps have been elucidated, many features of this pathway are only beginning to emerge. This review focuses on the role of protein–protein interactions in the regulation of this pathway, and how they contribute to co-ordinate activation steps, subcellular redistribution, substrate phosphorylation and cross-talk with other signalling pathways.

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