In Dictyostelium cAMP and cGMP have important functions as first and second messengers in chemotaxis and development. Two cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterases (DdPDE 1 and 2) have been identified previously, an extracellular dual-specificity enzyme and an intracellular cAMP-specific enzyme (encoded by the psdA and regA genes respectively). Biochemical data suggest the presence of at least one cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) that is activated by cGMP. Using bioinformatics we identified a partial sequence in the Dictyostelium expressed sequence tag database that shows a high degree of amino acid sequence identity with mammalian PDE catalytic domains (DdPDE3). The deduced amino acid sequence of a full-length DdPDE3 cDNA isolated in this study predicts a 60kDa protein with a 300-residue C-terminal PDE catalytic domain, which is preceded by approx. 200 residues rich in asparagine and glutamine residues. Expression of the DdPDE3 catalytic domain in Escherichia coli shows that the enzyme has Michaelis–Menten kinetics and a higher affinity for cGMP (Km = 0.22µM) than for cAMP (Km = 145µM); cGMP does not stimulate enzyme activity. The enzyme requires bivalent cations for activity; Mn2+ is preferred to Mg2+, whereas Ca2+ yields no activity. DdPDE3 is inhibited by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine with an IC50 of approx. 60µM. Overexpression of the DdPDE3 catalytic domain in Dictyostelium confirms these kinetic properties without indications of its activation by cGMP. The properties of DdPDE3 resemble those of mammalian PDE9, which also shows the highest sequence similarity within the catalytic domains. DdPDE3 is the first cGMP-selective PDE identified in lower eukaryotes.
Present address: Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572, Japan.