In guinea-pig liver cytosol, racemic 4-hydroxy-2(E)-nonenal (HNE), a reactive and highly toxic product released from biomembranes by lipid peroxidation, was detoxified (S)-preferentially by GSH conjugation mediated by glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and (R)-preferentially by NAD+-dependent oxidation mediated by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). The GST-mediated detoxification of the HNE enantiomers proceeded at much higher rates than that mediated by ALDH in guinea-pig liver cytosol. All the major guinea-pig GSTs, A1-1, M1-1, M1-2 and M1-3*, isolated from guinea-pig liver cytosol also catalysed the (S)-preferential conjugation of the HNE enantiomers. The liver and other major tissues of guinea-pigs had no immunologically detectable level of a putative GSTA4-4 orthologue, which exists as a minor GST protein in rat, mouse and human livers and exhibits extremely high catalytic activity towards HNE. All the hepatic rat GSTs, A1-1(2), A1-3, A4-4, M1-1, M1-2 and M2-2, also catalysed the (S)-preferential conjugation of HNE enantiomers.
The nucleotide data for guinea-pig GSTA1 reported in this paper have been deposited in the DDBJ, GenBank®, GSDB and EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Databases under the accession number AB016426.