Mast cells permeabilized by streptolysin O undergo exocytosis when stimulated with Ca2+ and guanosine 5′-[γ-thio]triphosphate but become progressively refractory to this stimulus if it is delayed. This run-down of responsiveness occurs over a period of 20–30min, during which the cells leak soluble and tethered proteins. We show here that withdrawal of ATP during the process of run-down is strongly inhibitory but that as little as 25μM ATP can extend responsiveness significantly; this effect is maximal at 50μM. When phosphatidylinositol transfer proteins (PITPs) are provided to cells at the time of permeabilization, run-down is retarded. We conclude that in the presence of ATP they convey substrates for phosphorylation that are essential for exocytosis and thus interact with the regulatory machinery. Furthermore, we show that PITPα and PITPβ have additive effects in this mechanism, suggesting that they are not functionally redundant. Alternatively, secretion from run-down cells can be inhibited by the aminoglycoside antibiotic neomycin, which is understood to bind to phosphoinositide headgroups, and by a PH (pleckstrin homology) domain polypeptide that binds phosphoinositides. The apparent displacement of neomycin by exogenous PITPs suggests that these proteins screen essential lipids. Secretion from run-down cells is also inhibited by 1-O-hexadecyl-2-O-methyl-rac-glycerol (AMG-C16), an inhibitor of protein kinase C. The lack of synergy between neomycin and AMG-C16 suggests that protein kinase C independently provides a second essential component through protein phosphorylation and that there are two independent phosphorylation pathways necessary for secretion competence.
Abbreviations used: AMG-C16, 1-O-hexadecyl-2-O-methyl-rac-glycerol; βARK1-Cp, β-adrenergic receptor kinase C-terminal peptide; diC8-PtdIns(4,5)P2, d-(+)-sn-1,2-di-O-octanoyl PtdIns(4,5)P2 (3-O-phospho-linked); GTP[S], guanosine 5′-[γ-thio]triphosphate; IEF, isoelectric focusing; PH, pleckstrin homology; PI-3K, phosphoinositide 3-kinase; PI-4K, phosphoinositide 4-kinase; PITP, phosphatidylinositol transfer protein; PKC, protein kinase C; PLC, phospholipase C; PtdCho, phosphatidylcholine; SLO, streptolysin O.