Results from our molecular-modelling and site-directed-mutagenesis studies of prostaglandin I2 synthase (PGIS) have suggested that the large PGIS cytoplasmic domain is anchored to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane by the N-terminal segment in a way that orients the substrate access channel opening to face the membrane. To test this hypothesis we have explored the accessibility of the PGIS substrate channel opening to site-specific antibodies. The working three-dimensional PGIS model constructed by protein homology modelling was used to predict surface portions near the substrate access channel opening. Two peptides corresponding to the surface immediately near the opening [residues 66–75 (P66–75) and 95–116 (P95–116)], and two other peptides corresponding to the surface about 10–20Å (1Å = 0.1nm) away from the opening [residues 366–382 (P366–382) and 472–482 (P472–482)] were used to prepare site-specific antibodies. All four antipeptide antibodies specifically recognized the synthetic segments of human PGIS and recombinant PGIS, as shown by binding assays and Western-blot analysis. The site-specific antibodies were used to probe the accessibility of the substrate access channel opening in transiently transfected COS-1 cells expressing recombinant human PGIS, and in spontaneously transformed human endothelial cell line ECV cells expressing endogenous human PGIS. Immunofluorescence staining was performed for cells selectively permeabilized with streptolysin O and for cells whose membranes were permeabilized with detergent. Antibodies to peptides in the immediate vicinity of the substrate channel (P66–75 and P95–116) bound to their targets only after general permeabilization with Triton X-100. In contrast, the two antibodies to peptides further from the channel opening (P366–382 and P472–482) bound to their targets even in cells with intact ER membranes. These observations support our topology model in which the PGIS substrate access channel opening is positioned close to the ER membrane.
Abbreviations used: ER, endoplasmic reticulum; PGIS, prostaglandin I2 synthase; TXAS, thromboxane A2 synthase; PGHS, prostaglandin H2 (PGH2) synthase; SLO, streptolysin O; P450, cytochrome P450; KLH, keyhole-limpet haemocyanin; PDI, protein disulphide-isomerase; 3-D, three-dimensional.