The dynamics of exocytosis/endocytosis of insulin secretory granules in pancreatic β-cells remains to be clarified. In the present study, we visualized and analysed the motion of insulin secretory granules in MIN6 cells using pH-sensitive green fluorescent protein (pHluorin) fused to either insulin or the vesicle membrane protein, phogrin. In order to monitor insulin exocytosis, pHluorin, which is brightly fluorescent at approximately pH7.4, but not at approximately pH5.0, was attached to the C-terminus of insulin. To monitor the motion of insulin secretory granules throughout exocytosis/endocytosis, pHluorin was inserted between the third and fourth amino acids after the identified signal-peptide cleavage site of rat phogrin cDNA. Using this method of cDNA construction, pHluorin was located in the vesicle lumen, which may enable discrimination of the unfused acidic secretory granules from the fused neutralized ones. In MIN6 cells expressing insulin—pHluorin, time-lapse confocal laser scanning microscopy (5 or 10s intervals) revealed the appearance of fluorescent spots by depolarization after stimulation with 50mM KCl and 22mM glucose. The number of these spots in the image at the indicated times was counted and found to be consistent with the results of insulin release measured by RIA during the time course. In MIN6 cells expressing phogrin—pHluorin, data showed that fluorescent spots appeared following high KCl stimulation and remained stationary for a while, moved on the plasma membrane and then disappeared. Thus we demonstrate the visualized motion of insulin granule exocytosis/endocytosis using the pH-sensitive marker, pHluorin.
Abbreviations used: [Ca2+]i, intracellular calcium concentration; (E)GFP, (enhanced) green fluorescent protein; pHluorin, pH-sensitive GFP; phogrin, phosphatase on the granule of insulinoma cells; KRB, Krebs—Ringer buffer; RFP, rhodamine fluorescent protein; SNARE, N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptor.