It has been previously suggested that leukotriene-induced Ca2+ signalling is mediated through a Rho-dependent process, but neither direct activation of Rho nor a mechanism underlying such signalling has been reported. Accordingly, we used the Rhotekin binding assay to assess RhoA activation in intestinal epithelial cells and observed that RhoA was activated by leukotriene D4 (LTD4). We also found that, within 15s, activation of RhoA by LTD4 led to an increased association of RhoA with G-protein βγ (Gβγ) and phospholipase C-γ1 (PLC-γ1) in the plasma membrane, as evidenced by the results of co-immunoprecipitation, glutathione S-transferase (GST) pulldown assays, and confocal microscopy. Amounts of RhoA increased in both Gβ and PLC-γ1 immunoprecipitates within 15s of LTD4 treatment. An interaction between RhoA, Gβγ and PLC-γ1 is supported by our finding that a GST fusion protein of constitutively active RhoA (GST-RhoAV14) precipitated Gβγ and PLC-γ1 from cell lysates in an agonist-dependent manner. Such an association is also substantiated by our confocal immunofluorescence results, which revealed that LTD4 induction increased co-localization of constitutively active RhoA and PLC-γ1 to the plasma membrane of cells transfected with enhanced green fluorescent protein L63RhoA. Furthermore, microinjection of neutralizing RhoA antibodies, but not control antibodies, significantly reduced LTD4-induced Ca2+ mobilization. Our results are the first to demonstrate a LTD4-induced activation of RhoA and more importantly its association with PLC-γ1, which are essential for the PLC-γ1-mediated calcium mobilization.
Abbreviations used: EGFP, enhanced green fluorescent protein; Gβγ, G-protein βγ; GEF, guanine nucleotide exchange factor; GST, glutathione S-transferase; Ins(1,4,5)P3, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate; LT, leukotriene; LTD4, leukotriene D4; PLC-γ1, phospholipase C-γ1; RBD, Rho-binding domain of Rhotekin.