The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) contains two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) or ATP-binding cassettes (ABCs) that characterize a large family of membrane transporters. Although the three-dimensional structures of these domains from several ABC proteins have been determined, this is not the case for CFTR, and hence the domains are defined simply on the basis of sequence alignment. The functional C-terminal boundary of NBD1 of CFTR was located by analysis of chloride channel function [Chan, Csanady, Seto-Young, Nairn and Gadsby (2000) J. Gen. Physiol. 116, 163–180]. However, the boundary between the C-terminal end of NBD2 and sequences further downstream in the whole protein, that are important for its cellular localization and endocytotic turnover, has not been defined. We have now done this by assaying the influence of progressive C-terminal truncations on photolabelling of NBD2 by 8-azido-ATP, which reflects hydrolysis, as well as binding, at that domain, and on NBD2-dependent channel gating itself. The boundary defined in this way is between residues 1420 and 1424, which corresponds to the final β-strand in aligned NBDs whose structures have been determined. Utilization of this information should facilitate the generation of monodisperse NBD2 polypeptides for structural analysis, which until now has not been possible. The established boundary includes within NBD2 a hydrophobic patch of four residues (1413–1416) previously shown to be essential for CFTR maturation and stability [Gentzsch and Riordan (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 1291–1298]. This hydrophobic cluster is conserved in most ABC proteins, and on alignment with ones of known structure constitutes the penultimate β-strand of the domain which is likely to participate in essential structure-stabilizing β-sheet formation.
Abbreviations used: ABCs, ATP-binding cassettes; BHK, baby hamster kidney; CFTR, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator; MRP1, multidrug resistance protein; NBD, nucleotide-binding domain; SUR1, sulphonylurea receptor; TMD, transmembrane domain.