Peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) catalyse a post-translational modification of proteins through the conversion of arginine residues into citrullines. The existence of four isoforms of PAD (types I, II, III and IV) encoded by four different genes, which are distinct in their substrate specificities and tissue-specific expression, was reported in rodents. In the present study, starting from epidermis polyadenylated RNA, we cloned by reverse transcriptase-PCR a full-length cDNA encoding human PAD type I. The cDNA was 2711bp in length and encoded a 663-amino-acid sequence. The predicted protein shares 75% identity with the rat PAD type I sequence, but displays only 50—57% identity with the three other known human isoforms. We have described the organization of the human PAD type I gene on chromosome 1p36. A recombinant PAD type I was produced in Escherichia coli and shown to be enzymically active. Human PAD type I mRNAs were detected by reverse transcriptase-PCR not only in the epidermis, but also in various organs, including prostate, testis, placenta, spleen and thymus. In human epidermis extracts analysed by Western blotting, PAD type I was detected as a 70kDa polypeptide, in agreement with its predicted molecular mass. As shown by immunohistochemistry, the enzyme was expressed in all the living layers of human epidermis, with the labelling being increased in the granular layer. This is the first description of the human PAD type I gene and the first demonstration of its expression in epidermis.

Abbreviations used: BAEE, benzoyl-l-arginine ethyl ester; Bz-l-Arg, benzoyl-l-arginine; GST, glutathione S-transferase; IPTG, isopropyl β-d-thiogalactoside; PAD, peptidylarginine deiminase; RACE, rapid amplification of cDNA ends; RT, reverse transcriptase.

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Author notes


These authors contributed equally to this work.


Present address: Department of System Functions, Faculty of Science, Yokohama City University, Yokohama, Japan.

The nucleotide sequence data reported will appear in DDBJ, EMBL, GenBank® and GSDB Nucleotide Sequence Databases under the accession numbers AB033768 and NM-013358.