The members of the Rho subfamily of small GTPases are key regulators of the actin cytoskeleton. However, recent studies have provided evidence for multiple additional roles for these signalling proteins in controlling endocytic traffic. Here we review our current understanding of Rho GTPase action within the endocytic pathway and examine the potential points of convergence with the more established, actin-based functions of these signalling proteins.

Abbreviations used: ACK, activated Cdc42-associated tyrosine kinase; Arp2/3 complex, Arp2–Arp3 complex; EGF, epidermal growth factor; GPI, glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol; Hrs, hepatocyte-growth-factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate; MTOC, microtubule organizing centre; MVBs, multivesicular late endosomes; PAK, p21-activated kinase; PKC, protein kinase C; ROCK, Rho-associated coiled-coil-containing protein kinase; ROK, RhoA-binding kinase; (N-) WASP, (neuronal) Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome protein.

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