Obtustatin and viperistatin represent the shortest known snake venom monomeric disintegrins. In the present study, we have produced recombinant full-length wild-type and site-directed mutants of obtustatin to assess the role of the K21TS23 tripeptide and C-terminal residues for specific inhibition of the α1β1 integrin. Thr22 appeared to be the most critical residue for disintegrin activity, whereas substitution of the flanking lysine or serine residues for alanine resulted in a less pronounced decrease in the anti-α1β1 integrin activity of the disintegrin. The triple mutant A21AA23 was devoid of blocking activity towards α1β1 integrin-mediated cell adhesion. The potency of recombinant KTS-disintegrins also depended on the residue C-terminally adjacent to the active motif. Substitution of Leu24 of wild-type obtustatin for an alanine residue slightly decreased the inhibitory activity of the mutant, whereas an arginine residue in this position enhanced the potency of the mutant over wild-type obtustatin by 6-fold. In addition, the replacements L38V and P40Q may account for a further 25-fold increase in α1β1 inhibitory potency of viperistatin over KTSR-obtustatin.
Integrins are αβ heterodimeric type-I transmembrane glycoproteins that mediate a range of regulated and dynamic interactions between cells and extracellular adhesion molecules. In humans, 18 α and eight β integrin subunits combine in a restricted manner to form at least 24 dimers, each of which exhibits a distinct ligand-binding profile [1–3]. Integrins transduce bidirectional signals across the plasma membrane, between the ECM (extracellular matrix) outside a cell and the cytoskeleton inside the cell [4,5], and integrin-mediated cell attachment to the ECM is a basic requirement to build a multicellular organism. Among the ligands of integrins are fibronectin, vitronectin, laminin and collagen. The collagen-binding integrins (α1β1, α2β1, α10β1 and α11β1) contain an approx. 200-amino-acid-residue (I- or A-) domain inserted between the second and the third Ca2+-binding motifs within the N-terminal part of the α subunit that plays a central role in ligand binding , and play an important role in the physiology of many organs and in innate immunity, inflammation and autoimmunity . The αI-domain-containing integrins that mediate direct adhesion to collagens seem to have a relatively recent history, since they have been found only in the vertebrate clade . Among them, integrin α1β1 has been recognized as a high-affinity receptor for collagen type IV, and binds also, albeit with less avidity, to other collagens such as type I, XIII and XVI [9,10]. Integrin α1β1 is highly expressed on microvascular endothelial cells, and blocking of its adhesive properties significantly reduces the vascularization ratio and tumour growth in the mouse [11–13], suggesting potential stategies to therapeutically target these receptors to alleviate or treat disease.
Viperidae snakes have developed in their venoms an efficient and almost complete repertoire of β1- and β3-integrin receptor antagonists . Thus, with the exception of the α2β1 integrin, which is targeted by a number of C-type lectin-like proteins , inhibitory motifs towards β1 and β3 integrins have evolved in different members of the disintegrin family [16–19]. Among them, RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) blocks integrins α8β1, α5β1, αvβ1, αvβ3 and αIIbβ3; MLD (Met-Leu-Asp) targets the α3β1, α4β1, α4β7, α7β1 and α9β1 integrins; VGD (Val-Gly-Asp) and MGD (Met-Gly-Asp) impair the function of the α5β1 integrin; KGD (Lys-Gly-Asp) inhibits the αIIbβ3 integrin with a high degree of selectivity;WGD (Trp-Gly-Asp) has been reported to be a potent inhibitor of the RGD-dependent integrins α5β1, αvβ3 and αIIbβ3; and KTS (Lys-Thr-Ser) and RTS (Arg-Thr-Ser) represent selective α1β1 inhibitors [14,20–22].
KTS/RTS-disintegrins, 41-residue monomeric polypeptides cross-linked by four conserved disulfide bonds, represent the shortest snake venom disintegrins described to date . The disintegrin obtustatin, isolated from the venom of Vipera lebetina obtusa, was the first described α1β1 antagonist [11,23]. It blocked the adhesion of α1β1-expressing K562 cells to immobilized collagens IV and I with an IC50 of 2 nM and 0.5 nM respectively, but was inactive against other integrin receptors, including the α1β1 structurally closely related collagen receptor α2β1 integrin. Obtustatin (5 μg/disk) inhibited 84% of FGF (fibroblast growth factor) 2-induced angiogenesis in vivo in the chicken  and the quail  chorioallantoic membrane assay. Moreover, in the Lewis lung  and B16F10 melanoma  syngenic mouse models, this disintegrin reduced tumour growth by approx. 50% and 65% respectively, when administered intraperitoneally every other day at a dose of 5 mg/kg of body weight. Subsequently, the KTS-disintegrins viperistatin (from V. palestinae venom)  and lebestatin (from Macrovipera lebetina transmediterranea venom) [25,26], and the RTS-disintegrin jerdostatin (recombinantly expressed from a Protobothrops jerdonii cDNA library)  have been proven to be very potent and highly selective inhibitors of the α1β1 integrin. NMR studies of the solution structure  and internal motions  of obtustatin have revealed that, in contrast with all known disintegrin structures in which the RGD adhesion motif is located at the apex of an eleven residue hairpin loop, the active K21TS23 tripeptide is oriented towards a side of a nine residue integrin-binding loop. The integrin-binding loop of obtustatin exhibits lateral local motions within a range of approx. 35° and with maximal displacement of approx. 5 Å (1 Å=0.1 nm), and the integrin-binding loop and the C-terminal tail of the disintegrin display concerted motions in the 100–300 ps timescale . The shape and size of its short integrin-binding loop along with its composition, flexibility and the distinct orientation of the KTS tripeptide may underlie the structural basis of the unique selectivity and specificity of obtustatin for integrin α1β1.
Structural diversity among the α1β1-specific disintegrins appears to be segregated within their C-terminal halves (see Figure 3 in ). Viperistatin differs from obtustatin by only three amino acids at positions 24, 38 and 40, and is approx. 25-fold more potent than obtustatin in inhibiting the interaction of human α1β1 integrin with collagen IV in vitro . In the present study we report the production and structure–function correlations of recombinant KTS-disintegrins.
Antibodies, ECM and cell-adhesion proteins
Polyclonal antiserum against the snake venom disintegrin eristostatin was developed commercially (Chemicon), and the IgG fraction was purified using a Protein A-based purification kit (Pierce Biotechnology). Mouse anti-human β1 integrin subunit monoclonal antibodies B44 and Lia1/2 were purchased from Chemicon and Beckman Coulter respectively. Goat anti-rabbit IgG conjugated with HRP (horseradish peroxidase) and AP (alkaline phosphatase) were purchased from Cell Signaling Biotechnology and Sigma respectively. Bovine collagens type IV and type I were purchased from Chemicon and Chrono-Log respectively. Human plasma fibronectin was from Sigma. Human VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1) Ig domain was kindly provided by Dr P. Wainreb (Biogen, Cambridge, MA, U.S.A.).
K562 and Jurkat cell lines were purchased from the American Type Culture Collection and cultured in RPMI 1640 and DMEM (Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium) respectively, supplemented with 10% (v/v) fetal bovine serum (Gibco). K562 cells lines transfected with α1 and α2 integrins were kindly provided by Dr M. Hemler (Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, U.S.A.) and were cultured in RPMI 1640 containing 500 μg/ml G418 sulfate (Mediatech).
Purification of anti-adhesive proteins from snake venoms
The following snake venom proteins were purified on a C18 column eluted with a linear acetonitrile gradient using the previously described two-step reverse-phase HPLC protocol [12,30]. The disintegrins obtustatin, VLO4 and VLO5 were purified from the venom of V. lebetina obtusa purchased from Latoxan. The disintegrin eristostatin was isolated from Eristocophis macmahoni venom (Latoxan). The disintegrin viperistatin and the C-type lectin-like protein VP12 were purified from the venom of V. palestinae kindly provided by Dr A. Bdolah (Zoology Department, Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel).
Cloning and expression of recombinant obtustatin and its mutants
A synthetic gene for obtustatin was designed based on the 41-amino-acid sequence of obtustatin  and optimal codons for Escherichia coli expression, and was commercially synthesized by Genscript. The obtustatin gene was PCR-amplified and ligated into the pGex-4-T1 vector for expression as a thrombin-cleavable GST (gluthatione transferase)-fusion protein using the pUC57 plasmid containing the synthetic gene as a template. Forward (5′-GTTCCGCGTGGATCCTGTACGACGGGTCCTTGTTGTCGT-3′) and reverse (5′-TCGACCCGGGAATTCTTAGCCGGGGTAAAGTGGACAATC-3′) primers (Oligos Etc.) contained restriction sites (underlined) for BamHI and EcoRI respectively. Recombinant obtustatin molecules contained the additional N-terminal dipeptide (Gly-Ser).
Site-directed mutagenesis was performed by PCR using the pGex-4-T1 vector containing obtustatin as a template and the following primers (Oligos Etc.) (underlining in the primers indicates mutated codons: mutant (KAS), forward primer 5′-GCTGGCACGACGTGTTGGAAGGCTTCTCTTACATCC-3′ and reverse primer 5′-CTTCCAACACGCGTGCCAGCTGGCTTAAGTTT-3′; mutant (ATS), forward primer 5′-CCAGCTGGCACGACGTGTTGGGCTACATCTCTTACA-3′ and reverse primer 5′-CCAACACGTCGTGCCAGCTGGCTTAAGTTTGCA-3′; mutant (KTA), forward primer 5′-GGCACGACGTGTTGGAAGACAGCTCTTACATCCCAT-3′ and reverse primer 5′-TGTCTTCCAACACGTCGTGCCAGCTGGCTTAAG-3′; mutant (AAA), forward primer 5′-CCAGCTGCCACGACGTGTTGGGCTGCTGCTCTT ACATCCCAT-3′ and reverse primer 5′-CCAACACGTCGTGCCAGCTGGCTTAAGTTTGCA-3′; mutant (KTSR), forward primer 5′-ACGACGTGTTGGAAGACATCTAGAACATCCCATTAC-3′ and reverse primer 5′-AGATGTCTTCCAACACGTCGTGCCAGCTGGCTT-3′; mutant (KTSA), forward primer 5′-ACGACGTGTTGGAAGACATCTGCTACATCCCATTAC-3′ and reverse primer 5′-AGATGTCTTCCAACACGTCGTGCCAGCTGGCTT-3′. The sequences of cDNAs of obtustatin and its mutants were verified at the Kimmel Cancer Center (Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, U.S.A.) and were used to transform E. coli BL21 (DE3) strain. The GST-fusion protein was induced and isolated as described previously . After digestion with thrombin, recombinant obtustatin and its mutants were purified by reverse-phase HPLC as described previously . The purity of the recombinant proteins was verified by SDS/PAGE, and Western blot analysis using an anti-eristostatin polyclonal antibody, which cross-reacts with native obtustatin, and a HRP-based chemiluminescence detection kit (Cell Signaling).
Cell-adhesion studies were performed using an assay developed previously in our laboratory . Briefly, integrin ligands and monoclonal antibody B44 were immobilized on to a 96-well plate in PBS (or in 0.02 M acetic acid for collagens I and IV) overnight at 4 °C. Wells were blocked for 1 h at room temperature (20 °C) with 1% (w/v) BSA in HBSS (Hanks balanced salt solution) buffer containing 3 mM MgCl2. Cells were labelled with 12.5 μM CMFDA (5-chloromethylfluoresceine diacetate) (Invitrogen) in HBSS buffer containing 3 mM MgCl2 for 30 min at 37 °C. Cells were freed from unbound reagent by washing in the same buffer. The labelled cell suspension (1×106 cells/ml) were pre-mixed with increasing concentrations of disintegrins, incubated for 15 min at room temperature and added to the wells of the ligand-coated plate. The plate was incubated for 30 min at 37 °C and unbound cells were removed by washing. Bound cells were lysed by adding 0.5% Triton X-100. In parallel, the standard curve was prepared in the same plate using known concentrations of labelled cells. Plates were read using an FLx800 fluorescence plate reader (BioTek) selecting the bottom reading option, and an excitation wavelength of 485 nm using a 530 nm emission filter.
Soluble α1β1 integrin was recombinantly produced in an insect cell-expression system and purified as described . Integrin interaction experiments were carried out using an ELISA-type protocol according to Eble et al. . Briefly, the CB3 [IV] collagen fragment was immobilized on a 96-well plate overnight at 4 °C in PBS at a concentration of 20 μg/ml. The plate was washed three times with TBS (Tris-buffered saline; 20 mM Tris and 150 mM NaCl), pH 7.5 containing 2 mM MnCl2 (TBS/Mg) and blocked with 1% (w/v) BSA in TBS/Mg at room temperature for 1 h. Then, 30 nM of soluble α1β1 integrin, dissolved in the same buffer supplemented with 1 mM MnCl2, was mixed with different concentrations of recombinant disintegrins. After incubation for 15 min at room temperature the mixtures were added to the plate and incubated for 2 h at room temperature. The plate was then washed twice with 50 mM Hepes (pH 7.5) containing 150 mM NaCl2, 2 mM MgCl2 and 1 mM MnCl2, and bound integrin was fixed with 2.5% (v/v) glutardialdehyde (Sigma). The α1β1 integrin was detected using a rabbit anti-β1 antiserum. After washing, goat anti-rabbit IgG conjugated with AP was added. 4-Nitrophenyl phosphate disodium salt hexahydrate (Sigma) was added as a substrate for AP and colour was developed at room temperature. The plate was read using an ELISA plate reader at 405 nm.
Cell-free disintegrin-binding assay for LIBS (ligand-induced binding site) expression
Disintegrins were labelled with FITC as described previously . Anti-LIBS monoclonal antibody B44 (0.5 μg/ml) or the blocking conformational-insensitive anti-β1 integrin subunit monoclonal antibody Lia1/2 (0.5 μg/ml) were immobilized on to a 96-well plate. Wells were blocked with 1% (w/v) BSA as described above (Cell-adhesion studies). α1K562 cells (α1-transfected K562) were harvested and washed with HBSS containing 3 mM Mg2+. The cell pellet was lysed with 0.5% Triton X-100 in HBSS containing 3 mM Mg2+ and the protein concentration in the lysate was estimated using the BCA (bicinchoninic acid) assay kit (Pierce). FITC–disintegrin was mixed with cell lysate (2 mg of protein/ml) to a total sample volume of 100 μl. Samples were incubated for 30 min at 37 °C and transferred to a 96-well plate with immobilized B44 antibody. To measure non-specific binding of FITC–disintegrin, the same experiment was carried out using non-α1-transfected K562 cells. After incubation for 30 min at 37 °C, the plates were washed three times with HBSS containing 3 mM Mg2+ and 1% (w/v) BSA. Finally, plates were read (using the bottom reading option) using a fluorescent plate reader FLx800 (BioTek) at an excitation wavelength of 485 nm and a 530 nm emission filter. In parallel, a standard curve of bound disintegrin was prepared on the same plate using known concentrations of FITC–disintegrin.
The structure of obtustatin mutants were calculated using NOE (nuclear Overhauser effect) information and disulfide bond restraints of the NMR solution structure of obtustatin (PDB code 1MPZ) and an energy minimization protocol supplied with the program CNS . For the final ensembles, a set of 50 structures was calculated and the converged structures selected corresponded to a plateau in the values of the overall calculated energy. For the analysis of the mutants the lowest energy structure was used as a representative model, and the mutations were introduced using the protocol supplied with the program PyMOL (DeLano Scientific; http://pymol.sourceforge.net/).
Antagonistic profile of native and recombinant obtustatin
Obtustatin recombinantly produced in E. coli exhibited the same chromatographic behaviour on reverse-phase HPLC as obtustatin purified from viper venom and showed the same inhibitory saturation pattern and IC50 on α1K562 cell adhesion to immobilized collagen IV as the native (venom-isolated) disintegrin (Figure 1A and Table 1). The selectivity of recombinant and native obtustatins was also indistinguishable from one another (Figure 1B). In particular, neither native nor recombinant obtustatin blocked the adhesive functions of the α2β1 integrin that is structurally and functionally highly related to α1β1 integrin. The recombinant production of fully active obtustatin allowed us to assess the previously suggested relevance of synthetic KTS-bearing peptides for specific α1β1 integrin inhibition [11,12,23] employing the site-directed mutated molecules displayed in Figure 2. Specifically, substitutions within the KTS tripeptide motif showed significant impairment of the α1β1 integrin inhibitory ability of the recombinant proteins (Figure 3). Using a cell-adhesion assay, the IC50 values of the single alanine mutants A21TS23, KAS and KTA had a 25-fold 82-fold and 13-fold respectively, decrease inhibiting the α1K562 cell adhesion to immobilized collagen IV (Figure 3A and Table 1). The triple mutant A21AA23 was devoid of inhibitory activity up to a concentration of 10 μM (Figure 3A and Table 1). Similar features were observed when the single and triple obtustatin mutants were tested for their ability to inhibit the binding of a recombinant soluble form of the α1β1 integrin to the CB3 fragment of collagen IV in a cell-free ELISA-type assay (Figure 3C).
Comparison of the effect of recombinant and native obtustatin on integrin-mediated cell adhesion to different ECM proteins
|Type of mutation||IC50 (nM)*|
|Wild-type recombinant/native obtustatin||2.00|
|Wild-type native viperistatin||0.08|
|Type of mutation||IC50 (nM)*|
|Wild-type recombinant/native obtustatin||2.00|
|Wild-type native viperistatin||0.08|
Data represent the mean from three independent experiments.
Amino acid sequences of obtustatin and its mutants recombinantly expressed in E. coli
Effect of recombinant obtustatin and its mutants on the interaction of α1β1 integrin with collagen IV
Next, we checked the hypothesis that the residue immediately C-terminal to the KTS motif may be partly responsible for the increased inhibitory potential of viperistatin over obtustatin . To this end, Leu24 (obtustatin) was replaced with alanine and with arginine (as in viperistatin). The K21TSA24 mutant (Figure 2G) showed only a slight decrease in IC50 in both ELISA-type and cell-adhesion assays. On the other hand, the L24R mutant (Figure 2F) exhibited a 6-fold enhancement in its α1β1 inhibitory potential (Table 1, and Figures 3B and 3C); however, in the adhesion, but not in the ELISA-type, assay this latter effect was concentration-dependent since the difference in activity of the KTSR mutant disappeared at disintegrin concentrations higher than 10 nM (compare Figures 3B and 3C).
KTS-disintegrins induced an LIBS epitope upon binding to α1β1 integrin
Ligand engagement to integrins may trigger conformational changes leading to the exposure of cryptic epitopes (LIBS) recognized by monoclonal antibodies . The ability of KTS-disintegrins to induce LIBS was assessed using two different assay systems. Using a solid-phase adhesion assay, we showed that both obtustatin and viperistatin significantly induced conformational alterations in α1β1 integrin reported by expression of a neoepitope on the β1 subunit recognized by the B44 monoclonal antibody (Figure 4A); however, the ability to induce LIBS was significantly lower for viperistatin than for obtustatin. On the other hand, wild-type obtustatin and its KTSR mutant had similar effects on monoclonal antibody B44 epitope exposure, suggesting that the distinct LIBS-inducing activity of obtustatin and viperistatin may not reside in their integrin-binding loops. On the other hand, using a cell-free binding assay, in which FITC-labelled disintegrins complexed with α1β1 integrin in the cell lysate were detected following binding to the immobilized B44 antibody, obtustatin, viperistatin and the mutated recombinant KTSR-obtustatin showed similar abilities inducing LIBS epitope on α1β1 integrin (Figure 4B) as in the adhesion assay (Figure 4A). Binding of FITC–disintegrins to the anti-β1 blocking antibody Lia1/2, used as a control, was negligible and was substracted as background from each reading. The outcome of this experimental setup ruled out the potential controversy concerning the possibility that internalization of the ligand–integrin complex influenced the results gathered through the adhesion assay.
Effect of wild-type viperistatin and obtustatin and the KTSR-obtustatin mutant on LIBS expression
The α1β1 integrin is widely considered to represent a target for anti-angiogenic, and thus anticancer, therapeutic intervention. Delineating structure–function correlations of specific α1β1 inhibitors is therefore of major pharmaceutical relevance. Our previous studies using linear synthetic peptides indicated a role for the KTS and RTS tripeptide motifs of obtustatin, viperistatin and jerdostatin in the selective inhibition of integrin α1β1 binding to collagens I and IV in vitro [11,12,26] and angiogenesis in vivo . Although not so widely spread among integrin ligands as the RGD tripeptide, the KTS motif is present in human and mouse ADAM-9 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase-9) disintegrin-like domain at a topologically equivalent position in snake venom disintegrins  (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entry Q13443). This motif is also localized in the C-terminal part of VP3, a structural protein of human polyomavirus JC, which after activation induces a multifocal leukoencephalopathy in the brain . These findings strongly suggest that the KTS motif may play an important role in certain human pathophysiological conditions. To establish structure–function correlations of KTS-bearing proteins, we have set up a bacterial system for the recombinant expression of fully active obtustatin. A major conclusion from comparison of the α1β1 inhibitory assays using point mutations which gradually converted obtustatin into viperistatin is that substitution of leucine for arginine at position 24, immediately C-terminal to the KTS motif, did not compromise the α1β1 selectivity but accounted for only 40% of the 25-fold enhanced activity of viperistatin over obtustatin. A corollary of this conclusion is that the amino acid adjacent to the KTS motif confers inhibitory potency rather than receptor specificity. Furthermore, the partial enhancement of the inhibitory activity of the KTSR-obtustatin mutant indicated that the other two different residues between viperistatin and obtustatin (L38V and P40Q; Figure 2) may contribute to the distinct inhibitory features of KTS-disintegrins. To provide a structural ground for the functional role of the KTSX motif residues, and to investigate structural determinants of the enhanced inhibitory activity of viperistatin over obtustatin, we generated molecular models of obtustatin and viperistatin (Figure 5). Among the KTS motif residues, mutation of the central Thr22 for alanine had the major functional impact (Table 1). This effect can be rationalized due to the critical role of this residue in maintaining the conformation of the integrin-binding loop [23,28]. A network of interactions between the solvent-shielded Hγ2 of Thr22 and residues Thr25 and Ser26 explains the restrained mobility of Thr22 . On the other hand, the 6-fold gain-of-activity conferred by the L24R mutation indicates that the positively charged extended side chain of arginine is better suited than the solvent-exposed alkyl side chain of leucine for establishing productive interactions with residues within the ligand-binding site of the α1β1 integrin. The size and shape of the integrin-binding loop has been proven to be a determinant for conferring integrin specificity to cyclic RGD peptides with a known conformation  and to the short-sized RGD-disintegrins echistatin and eristostatin . Thus the critical importance of Thr22 may be linked to a structure-stabilizing mechanism of the integrin-binding loop, which supports the correct conformational presentation of the KTS sequence to be recognized by α1β1 integrin, rather than to a direct role in receptor binding.
Molecular models of obtustatin and viperistatin
Although a tripeptide at the tip of a mobile loop represents the primary integrin inhibitory determinant of RGD-disintegrins, both the potency and receptor selectivity of disintegrins appears to be finely tuned by residues flanking the active sequence [16,40,41]. Similarly, the presence of an arginine residue at the C-terminal side of the primary KTS-integrin-recognition motif of viperistatin enhances its inhibitory activity towards α1β1 integrin by approx. 4-fold in comparison with obtustatin, which contains a leucine residue in this position; however, this non-conservative mutation does not affect the integrin specificity of KTS-disintegrins, whereas structural evidence gathered on synthetic peptides and RGD-disintegrins showed that the amino acid immediately C-terminal to the RGD sequence influence the integrin-recognition selectivity of the disintegrin through modulation of the RGD loop conformation .
It is also worth noting that substitution of leucine for arginine at position 24 (sequence F in Figure 2) was not enough for switching the inhibitory activity of obtustatin to that of viperistatin (Table 1, and Figures 3B and 3C). The partial (40%) gain-of-function of recombinant KTSR-obtustatin is in the range of inhibitory activity of lebestatin (IC50 of 0.4 nM), another α1β1-specific KTSR-disintegrin isolated from the venom of M. lebetina transmediterranea [25,26]. Besides position 24, obtustatin and lebestatin sequences differ only at position 38, which contains leucine and serine residues respectively. In line with structural studies on obtustatin showing that its integrin-binding loop and C-terminal tail displays concerted motions , our results suggest that these structural elements act as a secondary determinant of integrin-binding specificity/potency. Relevant to this point, obtustatin and viperistatin have different amino acids at positions 38 and 40, which are L38V and P40Q respectively (Figure 2). We argue that these two substitutions, along with the active site L24R mutation, may create a distinct chemical environment responsible for the increased inhibitory activity towards α1β1 integrin of viperistatin over obtustatin. Furthermore, in the present study we show that obtustatin, and to a lesser extent viperistatin, elicit the exposure of LIBS in α1β1 recognized by monoclonal antibody B44 (Figure 4). Our working hypothesis is that a proline residue at position 40 may contribute to the better exposure of conformational changes in the α1β1–obtustatin complex.
Concluding remarks and significance
The α1β1 integrin is an attractive target for the development of novel therapeutic strategies against pathological angiogenesis in cancer and certain inflammatory diseases. The KTSX sequence found in viper venom disintegrins represents a specific motif targeting the α1β1 integrin. The NMR solution structure of the KTS-disintegrin obtustatin along with the structure–function correlations reported in the present study may provide the ground for designing a new generation of synthetic lead compounds with potential application for anti-angiogenic intervention.
A further novel finding of the present study is the demonstration that ligand engagement elicits in α1β1 the exposure of cryptic epitopes recognized by monoclonal antibody B44. Ligand-induced binding sites had been reported in β3 and α4β1 integrins. Our results suggest that conformational regulation may represent a general feature of integrins for transducing ligand-specific signals. LIBS offer further possibilities for developing immunochemical weapons to fight undesired up-regulation of the α1β1 integrin in pathological conditions.
Finally, although the present study focused on the structural determinants of snake venom disintegrins for specific inhibition of α1β1 integrin, the occurrence of the KTS tripeptide in certain proteins, such as human ADAM-9 and VP3 capsid protein of the human polyomavirus JC, suggests a hitherto unrecognized role for this motif in physiology and pathophysiology. Functions of ADAM family proteins are not fully characterized. Interactions with collagen receptors may regulate their adhesive and/or enzymatic functions. On the other hand, the presence of the KTS sequence on a capsid protein of a virus attacking the human nervous system suggests that the α1β1 integrin may serve as part of the host-cell entry strategy of the pathogen. Further investigations on novel KTS-bearing proteins are needed for expanding our understanding of the basic principles underlying its functionality in diverse biological contexts.
a disintegrin and metalloproteinase
Hanks balanced salt solution
ligand-induced binding site
vascular cell adhesion molecule-1
This work was supported in part by the National Institutes of Health [grant number CA100145] (to C. M.); the American Heart Association [grant number 0230163N] (to C. M.); the German Research Council [grant number EB177/4-2] (to J. A. E.); and the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Madrid, Spain [grant number BFU2007-61563] (to J. J. C.).