The fifth and the most well-conserved member of the TLR (Toll-like receptor) adaptor, SARM (sterile α- and HEAT/armadillo-motif-containing protein), has been reported to be an important mediator of apoptosis. However, the exact cellular localization of SARM with respect to its role is unclear. In the present study we show that SARM specifically co-localizes with mitochondria. Endogenous SARM is mainly found in the mitochondria. We demonstrate that the N-terminal 27 amino acids (S27) of SARM, which is hydrophobic and polybasic, acts as a mitochondria-targeting signal sequence, associating SARM to the mitochon-dria. The S27 peptide has an inherent ability to bind to lipids and mitochondria. This sequence effectively translocates the soluble EGFP (enhanced green fluorescence protein) reporter into the mitochondria. Positioning S27 downstream of the EGFP abrogates its mitochondria-targeting ability. Transmission electron microscopy confirms the ability of S27 to import EGFP into the mitochondria. Importantly, by mutagenesis study, we delineated the specificity of the mitochondria-targeting ability to the arginine residue at the 14th position. The R14A SARM mutant also showed reduced apoptotic potential when compared with the wild-type. Taken together, S27, which is a bona fide signal sequence that targets SARM to the mitochondria, explains the pro-apoptotic activity of SARM.
TLRs (Toll-like receptors) are the prime sensors of pathogens. TLRs induce signalling cascades and activate transcription factors such as NF-κB (nuclear factor κB), AP-1 (activator protein 1) and IRF3 (interferon regulatory factor 3) . TLRs act via five major adaptors: MyD88 (myeloid differentiation factor 88), MAL (MyD88 adaptor-like protein), TRIF [TIR (Toll/interleukin-1 receptor) domain-containing adaptor protein inducing interferon β], TRAM (TRIF-related adaptor molecule) and SARM (sterile α- and HEAT/armadillo-motif-containing protein). MAL and TRAM are bridging adaptors of MyD88 and TRIF respectively [2–5]. MyD88 and TRIF are respectively early and late activators of TLR signalling [6–8].
SARM (GenBank® accession number NP_055892) is an ancient TLR adaptor having homologues in Drosophila, zebrafish, nematode worm (Caenorhabditis elegans), amphioxus and horseshoe crab [9–12]. Importantly, phylogenetic analysis indicates that SARM is closely related to bacterial TIR domain-containing protein, highlighting the evolutionary conservation of this protein . SARM is a multi-domain protein possessing two repeats each of ARM (HEAT/armadillo motif) and SAM (sterile α-motif), and a TIR domain, all of which are involved in protein–protein interactions  making SARM a unique TLR adaptor.
The C. elegans SARM homologue, TIR-1, protects the nematode worm from fungal and bacterial infections, independent of the TLR pathway [14,15]. SARM is regarded as a negative regulator of both MyD88- and TRIF-mediated TLR signalling [11,12,16,17]; however, macrophages from SARM−/− mice do not show up-regulation of TLR signalling [18,19]. Thus it appears that SARM plays a functional role that is different from the classical TLR signalling pathway. Interestingly, SARM was reported to recruit JNK3 (c-Jun N-terminal kinase 3) to the mitochondria and was observed to be involved in stress-induced neuronal toxicity . In addition, C. elegans TIR-1 was reported to be a key adaptor in mediating anoxic death . Furthermore, SARM has been highlighted as a key player in mediating apoptosis in T-cells (P. Panneerselvam, S. Ye, G.C.L. Wong, V. Selvarajan, W.J. Chng, S.B. Ng, B. Ho, J. Chen and J.L. Ding, unpublished work). Coincidentally, the SARM level is decreased in NK (natural killer)/T-cell lymphoma patient tissue when compared with the healthy cells, thus supporting its apoptotic phenotype ( and P. Panneerselvam, S. Ye, G.C.L. Wong, V. Selvarajan, W.J. Chng, S.B. Ng, B. Ho, J. Chen and J.L. Ding, unpublished work). It is therefore pertinent to delineate the exact subcellular localization of SARM with regards to its pro-apoptotic function. Kim et al.  highlighted that SARM lacking the mitochondria-targeting sequence is not localized inside the mitochondrial matrix. Furthermore, Peng et al.  showed that SARM is localized in the cytoplasm with a dot-like pattern in the nucleus, and claimed that it is anchored to the intracellular membrane. Hence the exact subcellular localization of SARM is still unclear, although its precise identification will offer insights into its functional role.
In the present study we show that SARM co-localizes with mitochondria. SARM is specifically present in the mitochondrial fraction of cells. We highlight an important signature sequence in SARM that is responsible for targeting it into the mitochondria. As a key cellular organelle for the regulation of apoptosis, the mitochondrion harbours various pro-apoptotic proteins such as AIF (apoptosis-inducing factor), Smac/DIABLO [direct IAP (inhibitor of apoptosis)-binding protein with low pI] and cytochrome c . We have mapped the precise residues at the N-terminus of SARM that confer the mitochondrial association. Initially the sequence analysis indicated that the N-terminus of SARM possesses a hydrophobic polybasic domain and has an ability to fold into an α-helix. We then showed the ability of S27 synthetic peptide (the N-terminal 27 amino acids of SARM) to associate with lipids. Using fluorescence microscopy, we demonstrated that fusion of S27 upstream of the reporter, EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein), was sufficient to direct the EGFP into the mitochondria. The ability of S27 to act as a mitochondria-targeting leader sequence was further supported by TEM (transmission electron microscopy). Furthermore, using site-directed mutagenesis we showed that Arg14 in S27 is the mitochondria-targeting determinant. Importantly, R14A SARM mutant had reduced apoptogenic activity when compared with wild-type SARM. Taken together, our findings highlight that pro-apoptotic SARM localizes to the mitochondria and it contains a bona fide mitochondria-targeting signal sequence in the first 27 amino acids of SARM, and that Arg14 is the critical potent residue which confers this ability.
Cell line and reagents
HEK-293T [human embryonic kidney cells expressing the large T-antigen of SV40 (simian virus 40)] and NIH 3T3 cell lines were maintained in DMEM (Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium) containing 10% (v/v) fetal bovine serum, 100 units/ml penicillin and 100 μg/ml streptomycin. The mammalian expression constructs: SARM full-length, N ARM1, N ARM2, N124, ARM1 ARM2 and S27 were cloned into pEGFPN3 (Supplementary Table S1 at http://www.BiochemJ.org/bj/442/bj4420263add.htm). The S27 peptide corresponding to the first 27 amino acids at the N-terminus of SARM (MVLTLLLSAYKLCRFFAMSG PRPGAER), TMR (tetramethylrhodamine)-labelled S27 and negative control negS1 (GFELEGMAEISCLPNGQWSNFPPKCIRECAMVSS)  were synthesized and purified to >95% purity by Genemed Synthesis. Lipofectamine™ LTX, Mitotracker and far red-labelled transferrin were from Invitrogen.
The mutants Lys11Ala, Arg14Ala, Arg22Ala Arg27Ala and Arg14Ala SARM were made by site-directed mutagenesis according to the manufacturer's guidelines (QuikChange® XL site-directed mutagenesis kit, Stratagene). The oligonucleotides were designed using the web-based QuikChange® Primer design program (Supplementary Table S1; http://www.agilent.com/genomics/qcpd). The site-directed mutagenesis was confirmed by sequencing the mutated plasmids.
HEK-293T cells were seeded on 12-well plates (Nunc) at a density of 2.5×105 cells/well in 1 ml of DMEM and grown overnight before transfection. Similarly, NIH 3T3 cells were seeded at a density of 8×104 cells/well in 1 ml of DMEM. Each transfection mixture, containing 800 ng of plasmid in 200 μl of incomplete medium and 2 μl of Lipofectamine™ LTX (Invitrogen), was incubated at room temperature (25°C) for 30 min. The transfection mixture was then added to the cells.
HEK-293T and NIH 3T3 cells were transfected for 12 h with the indicated truncated constructs of SARM. Following transfection, cells were incubated with 10 nM MitoTracker or 10 μg/ml labelled transferrin for 20 or 35 min respectively. The cells were washed and fixed in 4% formaldehyde for 15 min at room temperature, then washed three times with PBST (PBS containing 0.1% Tween 20). For immunostaining, the transfected cells were fixed and permeabilized. The cells were then stained with anti-(cytochrome c) antibody (1:200 dilution), followed by Alexa Fluor® 546-conjugated donkey anti-mouse antibody (1:1000 dilution). The cells were mounted on glass slides with mounting medium containing DAPI (4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole). The slides were viewed using a LSM META 510 confocal laser-scanning microscope with a ×100 oil-objective lens (Carl Zeiss).
Tyrosine/tryptophan fluorescence scanning spectroscopy
Either 250 μM S27 or 250 μM negS1 control peptide was mixed with increasing concentrations of a suspension of phospholipids, POPC (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine)/POPG (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol) (2:1), in a 96-well plate. Samples were excited at either 274 nm (λex for peptide containing tyrosine) or 280 nm (λex for peptide containing tryptophan), and the fluorescence emission spectrum was either scanned from 300 to 500 nm or read at tyrosine λmax (303 nm) respectively, using a BioTek fluorescence reader.
Equal amounts of POPE (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine) and POPG in 5 μl aliquots were spotted on to a PVDF membrane, air-dried and incubated with 50 μM TMR-labelled S27 peptide at room temperature in the dark for 2 h. After washing three times with 20 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.0), the fluorescence was measured at λex 495 nm and λem 525 nm using a BioTek reader.
Mitochondria were isolated from HEK-293T cells by differential centrifugation (3000 g for 15 min at 4°C) using a mitochondria isolation kit and following the manufacturer's protocol (Pierce Biotechnology). Mitochondria isolated from 106 cells were resuspended in 100 μl of ice-cold PEB buffer [PBS (pH 7.2), 2 mM EDTA and 0.5% BSA) and the indicated amounts of TMR-labelled peptide were added. After 30 min of incubation in the dark at 4°C, the mitochondria were washed three times with ice-cold PEB buffer and then analysed using a LSRII flow cytometer. Flow Jo software was used for data analysis.
HEK-293T cells were transfected with S27–EGFP and at 24 h post-transfection, the cells were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde and 1% glutaraldehyde. The cells were washed twice in distilled water and dehydrated in an ethanolic series. The cells were then gradually infiltrated with LR white resin and polymerized at 50°C for 2 days. Following ultramicrotomy, the sections were transferred on to a nickel grid and stained with rabbit anti-EGFP (1:100 dilution; Abcam) and mouse anti-(PDH E1α) (pyruvate dehydrogenase E1α) antibodies (1:20 dilution; Santa Cruz Biotechnology), followed by incubation with gold-conjugated anti-mouse and anti-rabbit secondary antibodies (Ted Pella). The grids were stained with osmium tetroxide, uranyl acetate and lead citrate. The samples were then observed using a JEM1010 transmission electron microscope (Jeol).
Mitochondria and cytosol fractions obtained from the transfected cells by differential centrifugation (3000 g for 15 min at 4°C) were separated by SDS/PAGE and transferred on to the PVDF membranes for immunodetection with rabbit anti-SARM (Santa Cruz Biotechnology) or anti-EGFP (Clontech) antibodies. The same membrane was stripped and reprobed for loading controls using rabbit anti-VDAC (voltage-dependent anion channel) antibody as a mitochondrial marker (Cell Signaling Technology) and mouse anti-GAPDH (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) antibody (Santa Cruz Biotechnology) as a cytoplasmic marker.
HEK-293T cells were transfected with either wild-type SARM or the R14A SARM mutant. The transfected cells were collected at various time points post-transfection and stained with the dead cell stain 7-AAD. Cell death was quantified by flow cytometry. Flow Jo software was used for data analysis.
SARM co-localizes with the mitochondria
To precisely delineate the exact intracellular localization of SARM, we costained the HEK-293T cells expressing SARM fused to EGFP with MitoTracker or labelled transferrin (endosomal marker). The fluorescence images clearly indicate that SARM is specifically localized to the mitochondria and not to the endosomes (Figure 1A). To delineate the exact domain of SARM that is important for mitochondrial association, we made various truncated constructs of SARM fused to EGFP. In our analysis, we observed that only the constructs with the N-terminal 124 amino acids of SARM, the N ARM1, N ARM2 and N124 constructs (Figure 1B), showed association with the mitochondria. Consistently, the ARM1 ARM2 construct, lacking the N-terminal 124 amino acids, did not localize to the mitochondria (Figure 1B). The mitochondrial localization of SARM and N124 was further confirmed biochemically by isolating the mitochondrial fraction from untransfected and SARM- and N124-transfected HEK-293T cells. Endogenous and transiently expressed SARM were enriched in the mitochondrial fraction. The N124 protein was also specifically detected in the mitochondrial fraction of the transfected cells. Immunoblot analysis with mitochondria- and cytosol-specific markers revealed that the subcellular fractions were pure (Figure 1C). The mitochondrial association of SARM and its various truncates was further validated in another cell line, NIH 3T3 cells (Figure 1D). Additionally SARM and N124 specifically co-localized with the mitochondrial protein cytochrome c in NIH 3T3 cells (Figure 1E). Collectively, it is evident that SARM is specifically localized in the mitochondria. It is the N-terminal domain and not the ARM domain of SARM that is important for mitochondrial association. Hence it was imperative to delineate the exact sequence at the N-terminal domain of SARM that is important for mitochondrial association.
SARM co-localizes with the mitochondria
The N-terminus of SARM harbours structural features for mitochondrial targeting
We then investigated whether the N-terminus of SARM could act as a mitochondria-targeting signal sequence. Interestingly, the N-terminus of SARM does not bear any sequence similarity with other reported mitochondria-targeting signal sequence, which could explain why Kim et al.  reported a lack of a mitochondria signal sequence in SARM. We then examined whether the N-terminal sequence of SARM bears structural features similar to that of mitochondrial signal sequence. First, using Kyte–Doolittle hydropathy plots , we found that the N-terminus of SARM harbours a significant hydrophobic patch (Figure 2A). Secondly, we observed the presence of a conserved polybasic domain  (Figure 2B). Hence the first 27 amino acids of SARM (S27) possess hydrophobic (leucine and alanine), positively charged (lysine and arginine) and hydroxylated (serine and threonine) amino acids (Figure 2C), which appear to bear a resemblance to other mitochondria-targeting leader sequences . Additionally PSIPRED  indicated that S27 (amino acids 2–16 of SARM) has the ability to fold into an α-helix (Figure 2D). However, the α-helix is not amphiphilic as indicated by a helical wheel analysis (http://rzlab.ucr.edu/scripts/wheel/wheel.cgi) (Figure 2E). Thus, except for the lack of a typical α-helix motif with amphiphilicity, it appears evident that the first 27 amino acids of SARM resemble a mitochondria-targeting signal sequence. However, amphiphilicity has been considered to not be essential in some mitochondria-targeting sequences [28,29]. Guided by these observations and reasoning, we hypothesized that the first 27 amino acids of SARM might be important for its association with the mitochondria. Coincidentally, we noted that the first 27 amino acids of SARM are well conserved across various SARM homologues (Figure 2F), suggesting a potential functional significance.
The N-terminus of SARM harbours structural features for mitochondrial targeting
S27 peptide directly binds to lipids and mitochondria
SVMPROT (http://jing.cz3.nus.edu.sg/cgi-bin/svmprot.cgi) predicted SARM to be a lipid-binding protein. Hence we reasoned that the direct lipid-binding ability of S27 might aid in the mitochondrial import of SARM. We therefore assessed the ability of the leading 27 amino acids of SARM to associate with lipids. To achieve this, we chemically synthesized the S27 peptide. The S27 peptide possesses one tyrosine and two phenylalanine residues (Figure 3A). The presence of tyrosine conferred the fluorescence property on the S27 peptide, which made it possible to measure its interaction with lipids. Interestingly, in the presence of POPC/POPG (at a ratio of 2:1), the inherent fluorescence emission of the S27 peptide gradually increased, indicating potential interaction between S27 and lipid (Figures 3B and 3C). The control peptide, negS1, which possesses a tryptophan residue (measured at λex 280 nm) did not show any significant change in the inherent fluorescence emission in the presence of POPC/POPG (Supplementary Figure S1 at http://www.BiochemJ.org/bj/442/bj4420263add.htm). Furthermore, the TMR-labelled S27 peptide showed preferential binding to POPG compared with POPE (Figure 3D). It is noteworthy that POPG is predominantly found in the bacterial cell wall, whereas POPE is present in the mammalian cell membrane . As the mitochondria are evolutionary endosymbionts of bacterial origin, POPG is present in the mitochondrial membrane lipids [31,32]. Therefore the stronger association of S27 to POPG corroborates the preferential anchorage of S27 on the mitochondrial membrane lipid. To substantiate our finding that S27 peptide associates with the mitochondrial membrane, we further isolated mitochondria from HEK-293T cells by differential centrifugation. When TMR-labelled S27 was incubated with the isolated mitochondria, we observed a dose-dependent increase in the binding of the S27 peptide to the cell-free mitochondria (Figures 3E and 3F). Taken together, the results of the present study showed that the N-terminal 27-amino-acid leader sequence of SARM could potentially interact with lipids and, in particular, with the mitochondrial membrane lipids.
S27 peptide associates with lipids and mitochondria
S27 is sufficient to target EGFP to the mitochondria
The ability of S27 to act as a mitochondria-targeting signal sequence was then directly visualized in a live cell. We prepared two different fluorescent fusion constructs of S27, one with C-terminal EGFP fusion (S27–EGFP) and the other with N-terminal EGFP fusion (EGFP–S27). The transfected HEK-293T cells were co-stained with MitoTracker and endosomal marker. Confocal microscopy revealed that S27–EGFP was co-localized with the mitochondria, but not with the endosomes (Figure 4A). Thus S27 specifically directs the EGFP to the mitochondria. In contrast, EGFP–S27 did not associate with the mitochondria; instead it was distributed throughout the cell (Figure 4B). Consistently S27–EGFP was specifically detected in the mitochondrial fraction of the transfected cells (Figure 4C). S27–EGFP also co-localized with mitochondria and cytochrome c in NIH 3T3 cells (Figures 4D and 4E). Thus it appears that S27 is a specific mitochondria-targeting signal sequence when positioned as a leader sequence.
S27 is sufficient to target EGFP to the mitochondria
TEM confirms S27 as a unique mitochondria-targeting signal sequence
We further performed TEM to confirm the specificity of S27 as a mitochondria-targeting signal sequence. HEK-293T cells transfected with S27–EGFP was used for the TEM studies. Immunogold labelling against the EGFP tag showed that EGFP was specifically localized inside the mitochondria. The untransfected negative control did not show any gold particles in the mitochondria (Figures 5A and 5B). To further confirm the specific localization of S27–EGFP in the mitochondria, we performed double labelling of S27–EGFP with mitochondrial matrix protein PDH E1α. The TEM images showed the co-localization of S27–EGFP with the matrix protein PDH E1α (Figure 5C). Hence it appears that S27 specifically targets and translocates the EGFP into the mitochondrial matrix.
TEM confirms that S27 is a unique mitochondria-targeting signal sequence
Arg14 is critical for mitochondrial targeting
We then delineated the key residues in S27 that might be determinants for the mitochondrial targeting. Guided by the hypothesis that basic residues might be important for mitochondrial import, we mutated Lys11, Arg14, Arg22 and Arg27 to alanine (Figure 6A). The HEK-293T cells transfected with these mutant constructs (Lys11Ala, Arg14Ala, Arg22Ala and Arg27Ala) were stained with MitoTracker to observe potential co-localization. All of the mutants except Arg14Ala retained their ability to localize to the mitochondria (Figure 6B). Interestingly mutation of only Arg14 abolished the mitochondrial association of S27, suggesting the importance of this single residue for translocating the protein into the mitochondria (Figure 6B). The critical role of Arg14 in determining the mitochondrial localization was further confirmed by transfecting each of the four mutant constructs into NIH 3T3 cells. Consistently, the Arg14Ala mutant failed to localize to the mitochondria (Figure 6C).
Arg14 is critical for mitochondrial localization
Arg14Ala SARM mutant has reduced apoptotic activity
Having shown that Arg14 is critical for mitochondrial localization, we checked whether mutation of Arg14 affects the pro-apoptotic potential of SARM. HEK-293T cells transfected with wild-type or Arg14Ala mutant SARM were stained with the dead cell stain 7-AAD. Cell death was quantified by flow cytometry. Interestingly, we observed that the Arg14Ala SARM mutant lost 50% of its apoptotic potential compared with the wild-type SARM (Figure 7). These data suggest that mitochondrial localization of SARM is important for the pro-apoptotic phenotype of SARM.
Arg14Ala SARM mutant has reduced apoptotic activity
Earlier studies had reported that SARM associates to the outer membrane of the mitochondria, and, owing to the lack of observation of a typical mitochondria-targeting signal, the ARM domain of SARM was purportedly important for this association [12,18]. Moreover, transient expression of SARM GFP (green fluorescent protein) appeared as dots in the nucleus and elsewhere in the cell . Therefore the precise localization of SARM in relation to its cellular function has hitherto been unclear. In the present study we demonstrated the mitochondria-targeting ability of the most conserved TLR adaptor, SARM, by immunofluorescence and Western blotting (Figure 1). Furthermore, we delineated the mitochondria-targeting ability of SARM to its N-terminal signal sequence and showed that the N-terminal sequences are well conserved across various SARM homologues (Figure 2). Importantly, the presence of a mitochondria-targeting signal sequence in SARM reflects its biological significance and helps to explain how SARM might mediate apoptosis in neurons and T-cells, and in C. elegans ([18,20] and P. Panneerselvam, S. Ye, G.C.L. Wong, V. Selvarajan, W.J. Chng, S.B. Ng, N.S. Tan, B. Ho, J. Chen and J.L. Ding, unpublished work).
There is no sequence similarity between S27 and other known mitochondria-targeting signal sequences. However, S27 possesses structural features of hydrophobicity, positively charged residues and α-helicity, which are important for targeting the mitochondria (Figure 2 and Supplementary Figure S2 at http://www.BiochemJ.org/bj/442/bj4420263add.htm). Nevertheless, it is important to note that the α-helix in S27 lacks amphiphilicity, which is purportedly critical for binding to the mitochondria import machinery (Supplementary Figure S2) . However, our results suggest that the hydrophobic and the conserved polybasic residues serve as a bipartite signal and are sufficient to target the mitochondria. We further show evidence that the S27 peptide has an inherent ability to interact with lipids (Figure 3), which might facilitate its import into the mitochondria. In addition, TEM indicated that S27 is able to translocate EGFP into the mitochondria. Further confirmation was obtained by double immunogold labelling of S27–EGFP with mitochondrial matrix-targeting protein PDH E1α (Figure 5). Interestingly, the mitochondria-targeting ability of S27 was abolished when S27 was cloned downstream of the EGFP reporter, indicating that S27 is only functional as a mitochondrial target when it is at the leading end of the protein (Figure 4). The mitochondria-targeting ability of SARM and S27 was further supported by Western blot analysis of mitochondrial fraction isolated from the transfected cells (Figures 1 and 4).
Since the positively charged amino acids in a signal sequence are earlier documented to be important for the transport across the membrane via the TOM (translocase of the mitochondrial outer membrane)/TIM (translocase of the mitochondrial inner membrane) import machinery [34–37], we mutated all four positively charged amino acids to uncharged alanine. Surprisingly, only the Arg14Ala mutant effectively abolished the mitochondria-targeting ability of S27 (Figure 6). The ability of Arg14 in determining the mitochondrial localization was confirmed using another cell line, NIH 3T3 (Figure 6). Coincidentally, Arg23 in the mitochondria signal sequence of ornithine transcarbamylase was also reported to be very critical for import . In contrast, the mitochondria-targeting ability of cytochrome P450 2E1 and aldehyde dehydrogenase was abrogated only when at least two or all of the arginine residues at the leader sequences were mutated simultaneously [34,39]. Thus arginine appears to be the common critical determinant for the interaction with either the mitochondria import machinery or directly with the negatively charged head groups of the mitochondrial phospholipid bilayer.
Importantly, mutating Arg14 to alanine caused SARM to lose 50% of its apoptotic potential (Figure 7). This clearly shows that mitochondrial localization of SARM is important for its pro-apoptotic activity. However, the pro-apoptotic potential of the Arg14Ala mutant was not completely abolished, suggesting the contribution of other residues and/or existence of other factors that are important for the full pro-apoptotic potential of SARM.
Currently drugs have been aimed at targeting antioxidants or membrane-disrupting agents to the mitochondria as a therapy for various oxidative-stress-related diseases and tumours [40–44]. The knowledge gained in the present study can be used to design therapeutics specifically targeting the mitochondria. Taken together, the results of the present study have shown the mitochondria-targeting ability of SARM, a unique TLR adaptor, and we have further isolated the crucial sequence and identified the single residue Arg14, which determines the mitochondria-targeting specificity. Concomitant to the mutation of Arg14 was a substantial reduction in the apoptotic potential of SARM. Thus the mitochondria-targeting characteristic of SARM reflects its biological importance in mediating apoptosis in neurons and T-cells, and in C. elegans. In the future, it will be interesting to examine whether this signal sequence follows the classical mitochondrial import mechanism and also to identify the molecular target on the mitochondria with which the SARM docks/interacts.
Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium
enhanced green fluorescent protein
human embryonic kidney cells expressing the large T-antigen of SV40 (simian virus 40)
myeloid differentiation factor 88
MyD88 adaptor-like protein
E1α, pyruvate dehydrogenase E1α subunit
sterile α- and HEAT/armadillo-motif-containing protein
transmission electron microscopy
Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain, TLR, Toll-like receptor
TIR domain-containing adaptor protein inducing interferon β
TRIF-related adaptor molecule
voltage-dependent anion channel
Porkodi Panneerselvam and Jeak Ling Ding conceived the study and designed the experiments. Porkodi Panneerselvam and Laishram Pradeepkumar Singh performed the experiments and analysed the data. Bow Ho and Jianzhu Chen provided some suggestions. Porkodi Panneerselvam and Jeak Ling Ding wrote the paper.
We thank Associate Professor Thorsten Wohland, Mr Jagadish Sankaran and Mr Nirmalya Bag for phospholipids; Ms Sun Ye for assisting in the lipid-binding assays and cloning; Mdm Josephine Howe for help with the TEM. Porkodi Panneerselvam is a graduate scholar of the Singapore-Massachusetts Institute of Technology Alliance. We thank SMART ID-IRG (Singapore-Massachusetts Institute of Technology Alliance for Research and Technology Interdisciplinary Research Group in Infectious Disease) for the usage of facilities.
This work was financed by SMA-CSB (Singapore-Massachusetts Institute of Technology Alliance Computation and Systems Biology) and A*STAR BMRC (Agency for Science, Technology and Research Biomedical Research Council) [grant number 08/1/21/19/574].