SphK (sphingosine kinase) is the major source of the bioactive lipid and GPCR (G-protein-coupled receptor) agonist S1P (sphingosine 1-phosphate). S1P promotes cell growth, survival and migration, and is a key regulator of lymphocyte trafficking. Inhibition of S1P signalling has been proposed as a strategy for treatment of inflammatory diseases and cancer. In the present paper we describe the discovery and characterization of PF-543, a novel cell-permeant inhibitor of SphK1. PF-543 inhibits SphK1 with a Ki of 3.6 nM, is sphingosine-competitive and is more than 100-fold selective for SphK1 over the SphK2 isoform. In 1483 head and neck carcinoma cells, which are characterized by high levels of SphK1 expression and an unusually high rate of S1P production, PF-543 decreased the level of endogenous S1P 10-fold with a proportional increase in the level of sphingosine. In contrast with past reports that show that the growth of many cancer cell lines is SphK1-dependent, specific inhibition of SphK1 had no effect on the proliferation and survival of 1483 cells, despite a dramatic change in the cellular S1P/sphingosine ratio. PF-543 was effective as a potent inhibitor of S1P formation in whole blood, indicating that the SphK1 isoform of sphingosine kinase is the major source of S1P in human blood. PF-543 is the most potent inhibitor of SphK1 described to date and it will be useful for dissecting specific roles of SphK1-driven S1P signalling.

INTRODUCTION

S1P (sphingosine 1-phosphate) is an extracellular ligand at five cognate GPCRs [G-protein coupled receptors; S1PRs (S1P receptors)] and a consequential intracellular lipid intermediate that affects diverse cellular processes including migration, growth and survival. S1P regulates function and trafficking of immune cells, induces angiogenesis and regulates endothelial cell functions, promotes survival and migration of cancer cells, and has been implicated as an important mediator in the pathogenesis of cancer and autoimmune and allergic diseases [1,2]. Modulation of the S1P/S1PR signalling axis has already proven efficacious in the clinic as FTY720, a prodrug for a non-selective S1PR agonist that acts by blocking S1P1 receptor signalling and lymphocyte trafficking, has been shown to prevent allograft rejection in renal transplant patients and to significantly reduce disease burden in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis [3]. S1P levels are elevated in many, if not most, tumours, and inhibition of S1P signalling may also offer a potential strategy for cancer therapy [4,5]. In fact, S1P-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies have been shown to reduce tumour progression in animal xenograft and allograft models [6].

S1P is formed primarily in the intracellular compartments by the action of SphKs (sphingosine kinases), which through phosphorylation of sphingosine control the output of the growth- and survival-promoting S1P and regulate the levels of the pro-apoptotic metabolites sphingosine and ceramide [7]. SphKs are related to other lipid kinases, including diacylglycerol kinases or ceramide kinases, and are conserved in all eukaryotic organisms from yeast, where the prototypical sphingoid long-chain base kinases were first identified [8], through plants and invertebrate animals to vertebrates. In mammalian organisms there are two isoforms of SphK, 42 kDa SphK1 found mostly in cytoplasm and in plasma membrane and 63 kDa SphK2 also found in the nucleus. Although specialized functions of both isoforms are still being elucidated [9], they can compensate for each other in the essential function of providing S1P signalling critical for formation of endothelial vasculature during embryonic development, as in mice a double Sphk1 and Sphk2 deletion is embryonic lethal, whereas animals with individual genes deleted are healthy and fertile [10]. SphK1 has been found to be overexpressed in many types of tumours and cancer cells, and overexpression of SphK1 confers a transformed phenotype on cells in culture [11]. SphK1 is induced by a wide array of growth factors and cytokines. It is required for full activation of mast cells, production of cytokines and PGE2 (prostaglandin E2) by epithelial and endothelial cells, and it extends the survival of immune cells [1216]. Inhibitors of SphK1 have been reported to block xenograft and allogeneic tumour growth and to reduce symptoms of inflammatory responses and tissue damage in animal models of arthritis and of ulcerative colitis [1719]. Therefore SphK1 is considered to be a promising target for cancer and inflammatory diseases. Mice lacking SphK1 have 50% lower levels of plasma S1P. Owing to decreased signalling through the S1P3 receptor, these mice have reduced severity of LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-induced systemic inflammation [20] and of genetically induced astrogliosis and neurodegeneration in the Sandhoff disease model [21]. On the other hand Sphk1−/− mice have compromised endothelial barrier function [22] and have been reported to be sensitized to ischaemia/reperfusion-induced heart injury [23].

Current insights into the biological functions of SphK1 in disease are mostly on the basis of experiments relying on chromosomal deletion of the gene, siRNA (small interfering RNA)-mediated knockdown of SPHK1 mRNA or on the use of pharmacological tools with relatively weak potency and low specificity. In either case the effects of specific elimination of the catalytic function of the enzyme may be masked by additional effects, i.e. by elimination of non-catalytic functions in the case of the genetic knockout or by off-target effects in the case of low-specificity inhibitors. To begin more precise assessment of the potential value of SphK1 as a drug target we searched for more specific active-site inhibitors of the enzyme. In the present paper we describe the discovery and characterization of PF-543, a novel selective sphingosine-competitive inhibitor of SphK1 that is over 1000-fold more potent in suppressing cellular S1P formation than DMS and SKI-2, commonly used pharmacological tools for SphK.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Materials

Sphingosines (d18:1, d17:1 and d20:1 D-erythro-sphingosines), S1Ps (d18:1, d17:1 and d20:1 D-erythro-sphingosine 1-phosphates) and ceramides (d18:1/16:0, d18:1/17:0, d18:1/18:0, d18:1/24:0 and d18:1/24:1) were from Avanti Polar Lipids. Fumonisin B1 was from Enzo Life Sciences.

SphK1 protein purification

Human SphK1 containing a His6 tag at the C-terminus was purified from Sf21 insect cells infected with baculovirus carrying the SphK1–His6 expression construct. Cells were lysed in buffer A {50 mM Tris/HCl (pH 7.5), 200 mM NaCl, 10% (v/v) glycerol, 0.05% Triton X-100 and 1 mM TCEP [tris-(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine]} and the cell homogenate was centrifuged at 15000 g to remove the cell debris and the supernatant was applied to a Talon Metal Affinity Superflow resin (Clontech) in buffer A containing 30 mM imidazole. The column was washed and the protein was eluted using buffer A containing 250 mM imidazole followed by an overnight dialysis against buffer A. The purified SphK1 was 85% pure as measured by SDS/PAGE and was stored at −80°C until used for the screening of compound libraries, determination of compound potency and performing mode-of-action studies.

For ITC (isothermal titration calorimetry) studies the S225A variant of SphK1 containing a cleavable C-terminal His6 tag was expressed in Sf21 cells and, following Ni-NTA (Ni2+-nitrilotriacetate) affinity purification and TEV (tobacco etch virus) protease treatment, was further purified through anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography as described below. The cell pellet from a 12 litre culture was suspended in 500 ml of buffer A1 [50 mM Tris/HCl (pH 8.0), 300 mM NaCl, 2 mM TCEP and 5% (v/v) glycerol], lysed by microfluidization (Niro Soavi Panda homogenizer) and centrifuged for 1 h at 32000 g. The supernatant was bound to 17 ml of Ni-NTA Superflow resin (Qiagen), washed with buffer A1 and loaded on to the column. The column was washed further with 200 ml of buffer A1 and then with 125 ml of buffer A1 containing 20 mM imidazole and eluted with 3 column volumes of buffer A1 with 300 mM imidazole. The eluate was treated with 4000 units of TEV protease and dialysed overnight against buffer A1. The dialysed/cleaved SphK1 was bound to Ni-NTA resin and the flow-through and the wash fractions were collected and diluted with buffer A1 containing no NaCl to lower the NaCl concentration to approximately 100 mM. This was then batch-bound with 6 ml of Q-sepharose FF resin for 1 h followed by step-washing the resin with increasing concentrations of NaCl. Flow-through and fractions containing SphK1 were pooled and subsequently passed through a size-exclusion column (Superdex 200 16/60). Fractions containing more that 95% pure SphK1 were collected, concentrated to 4.0 mg/ml and stored at −80°C.

Monobiotinylated human SphK1 was produced in Sf21 insect cells infected with the baculovirus expression vector carrying SphK1–BAP (biotin-acceptor peptide) construct and the E.coli BirA biotin ligase (Avidity). Biotinylated SphK1–BAP protein was purified by batch-binding to Soft-link resin (Promega) for 2 h. After collecting the flow-through the column was washed with 10 column volumes of buffer A and eluted using 3 column volumes of buffer A containing 10 mM biotin, resulting in a protein purity greater than 85% as measured by SDS/PAGE. This material was further purified and buffer-exchanged using a Superdex 200 (16/60) run in buffer A. Samples were concentrated to 2.4 mg/ml and stored at −80°C.

SphK assays

To support high-throughput screening and characterization of new inhibitors of SphK we established three formats of the enzyme assay.

FITC–S1P quantification/Caliper® assay

A 384-well format of the SphK enzyme assay based on separation of FITC–S1P from unreacted FITC–sphingosine substrate using a microfluidic capillary electrophoresis mobility-shift system (Caliper Lifescience) was developed. Briefly, 3 nM SphK1–His6 was incubated with 1 μM FITC–sphingosine (Echelon Bioscience), 20 μM ATP and 10 μM compound (a final concentration of DMSO of 2%) in a buffer containing 100 mM Hepes (pH 7.4), 1 mM MgCl2, 0.01% Triton X-100, 10% glycerol, 100 μM sodium orthovanadate and 1 mM DTT (dithiothreitol) for 1 h in a 384-well Matrical MP-101-1-PP plate. Reaction mixtures (10 μl) were quenched by the addition of 20 μl of 30 mM EDTA and 0.15% Coating Reagent-3 in 100 mM Hepes, and a small aliquot of each reaction (a few nanolitres) was analysed in the Caliper LabChip 3000 instrument under −1.5 psi (psi=6.9 kPa) pressure, a downstream voltage of −1900 V and a sip time of 0.2 s. Phosphorylated fluorescent product and unphosphorylated fluorescent substrate appeared as distinctive peaks and were quantified using the Caliper data analysis software.

The Caliper®-assay-based reversibility study of PF-543 with SphK1 was performed by a pre-incubation of SphK1 and PF-5443, along with a corresponding enzyme control, for 90 min at room temperature (22°C). Enzyme reactions were initiated by a 10× dilution of the enzyme/inhibitor pre-incubate into reaction buffer. Final enzyme reaction concentrations were 0.3 nM SphK1, 1 μM FITC–SPH, 1 mM ATP, 1 mM MgCl2 and 1 mM DTT with inhibitor concentrations that ranged from 100 nM to 0.1 nM in 2-fold serial dilutions.

ADP quantification/Transcreener® assay

We adapted and validated an ADP quantification methodology based on competitive FP (fluorescence polarization) resulting from binding of the Far-Red fluorescent Alexa Fluor® ADP tracer to an anti-ADP antibody (Bellbrook Labs) to establish a homogeneous high-throughput SphK1 enzyme assay. A typical reaction contained 100 mM Hepes (pH 7.4), 1 mM MgCl2, 100 μM sodium ortho vanadate (activated), 10% glycerol, 0.1% BSA (fatty-acid-free, Sigma, catalogue number A7030), 1 mM DTT, 3 μM sphingosine, 20 μM ATP and 0.3 nM SphK1. Compounds from the 400000 subset collection were screened at a 10 μM concentration in the presence of 2.5 μM DMSO for 1 h at room temperature (22°C) with a 15 min pre-incubation of SphK1 and compound. The subsequent structure–activity screening did not incorporate an enzyme pre-incubation step. All reactions were started by the addition of substrates, incubated at room temperature for 60 min and quenched with the Transcreener® stop buffer containing Alexa Fluor® ADP tracer and anti-ADP antibody (Bellbrook Labs). The parallel and perpendicular fluorescence was recorded 60 min later at 620 nm excitation and 688 nm emission, and the data were calculated and expressed as an FP value (in milli-polarization units).

Substrate competition assays

The enzyme and inhibition kinetic reactions were carried out under conditions similar to the Transcreener® assay except that the reaction buffer contained 10 mM KCl. The assays were run in a 50 μl volume for 20 min at room temperature and were stopped by the addition of 75% acetonitrile containing 10 mg/ml internal standard (C20S1P) and, after diluting the samples 10-fold in 35% acetonitrile, the amount of S1P formed was measured by MS. Quantification experiments were performed by two-dimensional LC (liquid chromatography)–MS/MS (tandem MS) using an HP 1200 LC system (Agilent) composed of a quaternary pump, a CTC Analytics HTS PAL autosampler (LEAP Technologies), and a switching valve, plumbed in-line with a Shimadzu HPLC pump which was interfaced to an API 4000 mass spectrometer (MDS-Sciex) operated in the positive-ion electrospray and MRM (multiple-reaction-monitoring) modes. Typically, 300 μl of sample was injected on to a Betasil C18 trapping column (Thermo Scientific) with a 2 ml/min water and 1% formic acid mobile phase. After 0.7 min, the valve was switched and the captured analytes were eluted on to a 50 mm×2.1 mm, 5 μm particle size, Betasil C18 analytical column (Thermo Scientific, catalogue number 70103-052130) with a 3 min gradient from 70 to 100% mobile phase B at a 0.8 ml/min flow rate. The gradient mobile phases were (A) water and 1% formic acid and (B) acetonitrile and 1% formic acid. The trapping column was washed with 100% acetonitrile and 1% formic acid for 1 min before the re-equilibration step with mobile phase A. Selected analytes were specifically detected by monitoring HPLC retention times and ion pairs corresponding to the parent and specific fragment ion mass-to-charge ratios; specifically, 380.2/264.1 for S1P and 408.2/292.1 for C20 S1P. Standard analyte curves were analysed prior to study samples to ensure equivalent instrument response to analytes and their respective internal standards. Concentrations of S1P were determined using Analyst 1.5 software.

PF-543 phosphorylation

To assess the relative rate of phosphorylation of PF-543, 2 nM SphK1–His6 was incubated either with 20 μM PF-543 or 1 μM sphingosine and 1 mM ATP, in a buffer containing 100 mM Hepes (pH 7.4), 1 mM MgCl2, 0.01% Triton X-100, 10% glycerol, 100 μM sodium orthovanadate and 1 mM DTT for various time periods and the products of the reaction, phospho-PF-543 or S1P, were quantified by MS against independently synthesized phospho-PF-543 and S1P standards.

Evaluation of SPHK1 and SPHK2 expression levels in 1483 cells

Total RNA was isolated from frozen human 1483 cells using the 6100 Nucleic Acid PrepStation (Applied Biosystems) according to the manufacture's protocol. RT (reverse transcription)–PCR was performed using the ABI PRISM 7900HT Sequence Detector (Applied Biosystems) with individual RNAs amplified in duplicate (100 ng of total RNA/reaction) using qScript one-step qRT-PCR (quantitative real-time PCR) kit (Quanta Bioscience). FAM (6-carboxyfluorescein)-labelled TaqMan probes and primers specific for each gene were purchased from Applied Biosystems: PPIA (cyclophilin A), Hs99999904_m; SPHK1, Hs00184211_m1; and SPHK2, Hs00219999_m1. After normalization to PPIA, expression changes were determined by the ΔCT method and expressed as the fold change (SPHK1 compared with SPHK2).

Measurement of cellular sphingolipids by LC-MS

C17-S1P formation assay

To assess the impact of SphK1 inhibitors on the rate of S1P formation, 1483 cells (6000 cells/well) were plated in a 96-well tissue culture plate in DMEM (Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium)/Ham's F12 with 10% FBS (fetal bovine serum) and cultured overnight at 37°C/5% CO2. The medium was replaced with DMEM/Ham's F12 plus 2% FBS, and after a 2 h incubation cells were exposed to various concentrations of inhibitor dissolved in DMSO (final concentration of DMSO was kept constant at 1%). Formation of C17-S1P was initiated 30 min later by the addition of C17-sphingosine to culture medium to a final concentration of 10 μM. After a 15 min incubation, the medium was removed, the cell monolayer was extracted with 50% acetonitrile with 20 ng/ml C20-S1P (internal standard) and lipids were quantified by MS as described above using parent to fragment ion mass-to-charge ratios of 366.2/250.1 and 408.2/292.1 for C17-S1P and C20-S1P respectively.

Incorporation of C17-sphingosine into ceramides

1483 cells (6000 cells/well) were cultured overnight as described above, the medium was exchanged with DMEM/Ham's F12 with 2% FBS, and the cells were incubated for 16 h with 10 μM C17-sphingosine in the presence of inhibitors. The medium was removed by aspiration, the cells were extracted with 50% acetonitrile and, after diluting the samples 10-fold in 35% acetonitrile containing 3.3 ng/ml d18:1/17:0-ceramide (internal standard), the cellular ceramides were measured using a two-dimensional LC–MS/MS system described above. For ceramide assays the Betasil trapping column was used with 1.5% formic acid in water (A) and acetonitrile (B) as the mobile phases, and the analytical Agilent C18 Eclipse XDB-C18 column (catalogue number 961967-302) was used with mobile phases of 1% formic acid with 10 mM ammonium acetate in water (A) and 1% formic acid with 10 mM ammonium acetate in 1:1 methanol/propan-2-ol (B). MRM ion pairs, 552.4/250.2, 636.6/250.2 and 552.5/264.3 were used for detection of d17:1/18:0, d17:1/24:0 and d18:1/17:0 ceramides respectively. Quantification of d17:1 ceramides was carried out by comparison of MRM signals of d17:1 ceramides with the MRM signal of d18:1/17:0 ceramide.

Quantification of endogenous sphingolipids

To measure the effect of PF-543 on the steady-state level of endogenous sphingosine metabolites (S1P, sphingosine and ceramides) the 1483 cells (25000 cells/well), following an overnight incubation in DMEM/Ham's F12 plus 10% FBS, were washed with DMEM/Ham's F12 and after a 2 h incubation in medium without serum were exposed to various concentrations of SphK1 inhibitor for 1 h. The lipids were extracted and S1P and sphingosine were quantified as described above by LC–MS/MS using pure standards and the parent to fragment ion mass-to-charge ratios 380.2/264.1 for S1P, 300.2/252.2 for sphingosine, 538.4/264.3 for C16:0-ceramide, 566.6/264.3 for C18:0-ceramide, 650.8/264.3 for C24:0-ceramide and 648.8/264.4 for C24:1-ceramide.

SphK1-binding evaluation

SPR (surface plasmon resonance)

SPR studies were performed using a Biacore 2000 instrument. Interactions between the SphK1 protein immobilized on to a SA (steptavidin) surface and inhibitor flowed over at 80 μl/min were monitored in real-time as a change in SPR as measured in resonance units. Full-length SphK1 containing an N-terminal biotin tag that had been previously purified to >85% was captured by flowing freshly thawed protein over the SA surface until saturation was achieved. Compound was serially diluted into running buffer [50 mM Tris/HCl (pH 8.0), 1% DMSO and 300 mM NaCl] and injected over the surface at a flow rate of 80 μl/min. Raw sensorgram data were reduced and double-referenced using BIAevaluation 4.1 software. Equilibrium fits to a 1:1 binding model are reported as Kd values

ITC of SphK1 with PF-543

A MicroCal VP-ITC instrument was used to conduct the ITC studies with data collection and plotting obtained using the Windows-based application Origin 7.0. Experiments were performed at 25°C using a mutant S225A SphK1 sample that had been dialysed against 25 mM Tris/HCl (pH 8.0), 300 mM NaCl and 0.25 mM TCEP. To minimize the heat-of-dilution effects resulting from differences in buffer composition between ligand and protein, the inhibitors were diluted into the equivalent dialysis buffer to give a final DMSO concentration of 2%. Likewise, stock DMSO was added to the dialysed protein to 2% and the concentration was determined using a molar absorption coefficient of 38850 M−1·cm−1 at 280 nm [24]. Inhibitors at concentrations from 100 to 150 μM were injected into 10 μM SphK1 placed in the titration cell. After an initial 2 μl injection, 25 consecutive injections of 8 μl were added to saturate the protein-binding site. Protein was centrifuged for 10 min prior to the experiment at 10000 g to remove aggregates, and then degassed for 5 min at room temperature. The heat of dilution for the inhibitor into buffer was determined in a separate experiment and subtracted from the heat of binding prior to fitting the data. Data for the titrations were fitted assuming a stoichiometry of one.

Human whole-blood assay

Fresh sodium heparin-treated human whole blood from healthy drug-free volunteers was used within 1–5 h of collection. Blood (20 μl) was mixed with 100 nl of compound solution in DMSO and pre-incubated for 30 min at 37°C. The reaction was started by the addition of 5 μl of 100 μM C17-S1P prepared in DMEM/Ham's F12 with 10% FBS, carried out at 37°C for 10 min and stopped by the addition of 6 μl of 33% formic acid followed by the addition of 70 μl of acetonitrile containing C20- S1P internal standard (100 ng/ml). After mixing and centrifugation, the C17-S1P was measured in the whole-blood extract by MS as described previously [25].

Quantification of cell growth

1483 cells were cultured in DMEM/Ham's F-12, A549 and LN229 cells were cultured in DMEM, Jurkat and U937 cells were cultured in RPMI 1640, and MCF-7 cells were cultured in Eagle's MEM (minimal essential medium) with 0.01 mg/ml insulin. All media were supplemented with L-glutamine, Gentamicin and 10% FBS (or 0.5% FBS as indicated). The cells were grown in 96-well plates in 100 μl of medium with PF-543 or DMSO vehicle (0.01%) at 37°C in an humidified incubator in the presence of 5% CO2. The cell growth and viability was measured using the CellTiter-Glo® Assay (Promega) by quantifying luminescence proportional to the amount of ATP present according to the manufacturer's protocol.

Synthesis of PF-543 and phospho-PF-543

For details on the synthesis of PF-543 and phospho-PF-543, please refer to the Supplementary Online Data at http://www.BiochemJ.org/bj/444/bj4440079add.htm.

RESULTS

SphK1 high-throughput screening and hit triage

In an attempt to identify novel inhibitors of SphK1 we screened the Pfizer compound collection using two different formats of the enzyme assay. Initially, a diversity subset of the collection (150000 compounds) was screened for inhibitors of the production of FITC–S1P by purified human SphK1 using a microfluidic mobility-shift separation system (Caliper LifeSciences) for quantification of both the fluorescent product and the substrate. Subsequently, a Transcreener® ADP detection assay based on FP resulting from binding of the fluorescent ADP derivative to an anti-ADP antibody was used to screen a larger representative subset of the collection (400000 compounds) for inhibitors of the sphingosine-dependent formation of ADP in the SphK1 enzyme reaction. Confirmed SphK1 enzyme reaction inhibitors with IC50 values less than 10 μM identified in both screens were then further validated in the cellular S1P formation assay. In this assay, production of C17-S1P by 1483 cells derived from human squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck [26] exposed to C17-sphingosine was monitored using LC–MS/MS. We chose 1483 cells for this assay on the basis of the highest ratio of SPHK1 to SPHK2 mRNA level detected in these cells compared with 23 other cell lines tested. Also, 1483 cells demonstrated an unusually high C17-sphingosine into C17-S1P conversion rate, which exceeded 5-fold the initial rate of C17-S1P formation by HEK (human embryonic kidney)-293 cells transfected with the human SphK1 expression construct (Supplementary Figure S1 at http://www.BiochemJ.org/bj/444/bj4440079add.htm). These observations suggested that in 1483 cells SphK1 is the major isoform of SphK contributing to S1P production. High-throughput screens using both assay formats identified attractive hit chemotypes with promising cellular inhibition of C17-S1P (IC50=100–200 nM). Medicinal chemistry optimization focused on combining optimal structural fragments, hydrophobic tails and positively charged hydrophilic head groups, from each series in order to improve SphK1 inhibitory potency. This hybridization effort resulted in the identification of PF-543 (Figure 1A), which displayed a two orders of magnitude improvement in potency over the screening hits. PF-543 inhibited SphK1 in the in vitro enzyme assay with an IC50 value of 2.0±0.6 nM and was able to inhibit the enzyme >95% at a concentration of 20 nM (Figure 1B). Importantly, PF-543 was found to inhibit C17-S1P formation in 1483 cells with a similar potency (IC50=1.0±0.3 nM) (see Figure 4A). A strong correlation between inhibitor activity in the in vitro enzyme assay and the cellular S1P formation assay was also observed for the initial screening hits and other closely related analogues of PFE-543 spanning a broad range of potencies, suggesting that the inhibitors are readily taken up by 1483 cells (M.E. Schnute and M.M. Nagiec, unpublished work).

PF-543 is a potent inhibitor of SphK1

Figure 1
PF-543 is a potent inhibitor of SphK1

(A) Chemical structure of the SphK1 inhibitor PF-543. (B) A range of concentrations of PF-543 was tested in the presence of 1% DMSO in the SphK1 enzyme assay measuring sphingosine-dependent formation of ADP (Transcreener®). The data are expressed as the percentage inhibition of the reaction carried in the presence of vehicle (1% DMSO). Data were fitted using GraphPad Prism software, the IC50 of 2.0±0.6 nM is a mean±S.D. from three experiments.

Figure 1
PF-543 is a potent inhibitor of SphK1

(A) Chemical structure of the SphK1 inhibitor PF-543. (B) A range of concentrations of PF-543 was tested in the presence of 1% DMSO in the SphK1 enzyme assay measuring sphingosine-dependent formation of ADP (Transcreener®). The data are expressed as the percentage inhibition of the reaction carried in the presence of vehicle (1% DMSO). Data were fitted using GraphPad Prism software, the IC50 of 2.0±0.6 nM is a mean±S.D. from three experiments.

Mechanism of action of PF-543

We evaluated the mechanism of action of PF-543 by examining reversibility, measuring the kinetic parameters of SphK1 inhibition at various concentrations of ATP and sphingosine, and demonstrating direct binding of the inhibitor to SphK1 protein.

PF-543 is a reversible inhibitor of SphK1 as initial rates of enzyme activity were similar and yielded identical IC50 values in reactions run either with (IC50=3.6 nM) or without (IC50=3.5 nM) a 90 min pre-incubation of the enzyme with 10-fold higher concentrations of inhibitor followed by 10-fold dilution immediately prior to assay (Figure 2A). In addition, there was no lag in the kinetics of product formation in the pre-incubated samples, suggesting that the reversibility was relatively rapid (results not shown).

PF-543 acts as a reversible sphingosine-competitive and ATP-non-competitive inhibitor of SphK1

Figure 2
PF-543 acts as a reversible sphingosine-competitive and ATP-non-competitive inhibitor of SphK1

Initial rates for SphK1 reactions run in the presence of various concentrations of PF-543 were measured using a Caliper® format of the assay and depicted as the initial rate IC50 plots (A). Reactions were run either with (●) or without (○) 90 min of pre-incubation of the enzyme with a 10-fold excess of compound as described in the Materials and methods section. The data were fitted using GraFit software. (B) The LC–MS/MS enzyme assay was performed with a native substrate sphingosine delivered in a complex with 0.1% fatty-acid-free BSA at various concentrations of sphingosine and 75 μM ATP (left-hand panel) or at various concentrations of ATP and 15 μM sphingosine (right-hand panel) in the presence of different concentrations of PF-543 (ranging from 0.625 to 80 nM). The reaction mixtures were incubated for 30 min at 37°C. The data were fitted with GraFit 5.0 software to competitive, non-competitive and uncompetitive models of inhibition. The lines in the variable sphingosine graph (left-hand panel) show the best fit to the competitive model and the lines in the variable ATP graph (right-hand panel) show the best fit to the non-competitive model. In each case the model plotted was preferred over the other two on the basis of the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) score [38] by a probability of greater than 99.99%. The insets show the same results plotted as inverse rate against inverse substrate concentration. For clarity, only values measured at greater than 5 μM sphingosine or yielding more than 50 nM product are plotted in the left-hand panel, and measured at greater than 3 μM ATP or 30 nM product are plotted in the right-hand panel.

Figure 2
PF-543 acts as a reversible sphingosine-competitive and ATP-non-competitive inhibitor of SphK1

Initial rates for SphK1 reactions run in the presence of various concentrations of PF-543 were measured using a Caliper® format of the assay and depicted as the initial rate IC50 plots (A). Reactions were run either with (●) or without (○) 90 min of pre-incubation of the enzyme with a 10-fold excess of compound as described in the Materials and methods section. The data were fitted using GraFit software. (B) The LC–MS/MS enzyme assay was performed with a native substrate sphingosine delivered in a complex with 0.1% fatty-acid-free BSA at various concentrations of sphingosine and 75 μM ATP (left-hand panel) or at various concentrations of ATP and 15 μM sphingosine (right-hand panel) in the presence of different concentrations of PF-543 (ranging from 0.625 to 80 nM). The reaction mixtures were incubated for 30 min at 37°C. The data were fitted with GraFit 5.0 software to competitive, non-competitive and uncompetitive models of inhibition. The lines in the variable sphingosine graph (left-hand panel) show the best fit to the competitive model and the lines in the variable ATP graph (right-hand panel) show the best fit to the non-competitive model. In each case the model plotted was preferred over the other two on the basis of the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) score [38] by a probability of greater than 99.99%. The insets show the same results plotted as inverse rate against inverse substrate concentration. For clarity, only values measured at greater than 5 μM sphingosine or yielding more than 50 nM product are plotted in the left-hand panel, and measured at greater than 3 μM ATP or 30 nM product are plotted in the right-hand panel.

PF-543 does not appear to be competitive with ATP but clearly behaves as a sphingosine-competitive inhibitor displaying an inhibition constant (Ki) of 3.6 nM (Figure 2B) in the assay run with the native substrate C18-sphingosine. PF-543 structurally resembles sphingosine and potentially could act as SphK1 substrate. Upon incubation of PF-543 with SphK1 in the presence of Mg2+-ATP, phosphorylated PF-543 was formed at a rate 1500-fold lower than the rate of S1P formation from sphingosine under the same assay conditions. This indicated that PF-543 could be phosphorylated by SphK1, but was a poor substrate for the enzyme. In addition, we measured the rate of phosphorylation of PF-543 by 1483 cells. We found that phosphorylated PF-543 is formed at the rate of 0.3 pmol/106 cells per min in contrast with the rate of C17-S1P formation of 1.4 nmol/106 cells per min (Supplementary Figure S1).

SPR experiments confirmed direct binding of PF-543 to SphK1 protein immobilized on the SA chip (Figure 3A). The binding kinetics were consistent with a 1:1 stoichiometry and indicated that PF-543 bound SphK1 reversibly (kofft1/2=8.5 min) and with high affinity. The binding constant (Kd) of 5 nM obtained in this experiment was in a very good agreement with the inhibition constant calculated from enzyme kinetic data.

PF-543 binds SphK1 protein

Figure 3
PF-543 binds SphK1 protein

(A) SPR sensorgrams recorded by a Biacore 2000 instrument during the flow of various concentrations of PF-543 over the surface of the SA chip preloaded to saturation with SphK1 protein biotinylated at the C-terminal BAP tag. The concentrations of PF-543 used were 7.5, 15, 31, 62, 125, 250 and 500 nM (traces g,f,e,d,c,b and a respectively), the data were fitted using BioEvaluation 4.1 software. (B) Calorimetric titration of PF-543 against the SphK1 S225A variant of human SphK1. Data were collected at a protein concentration of 10 μM using a MicroCal VP-ITC instrument and plotted using Origin 7.0 software.

Figure 3
PF-543 binds SphK1 protein

(A) SPR sensorgrams recorded by a Biacore 2000 instrument during the flow of various concentrations of PF-543 over the surface of the SA chip preloaded to saturation with SphK1 protein biotinylated at the C-terminal BAP tag. The concentrations of PF-543 used were 7.5, 15, 31, 62, 125, 250 and 500 nM (traces g,f,e,d,c,b and a respectively), the data were fitted using BioEvaluation 4.1 software. (B) Calorimetric titration of PF-543 against the SphK1 S225A variant of human SphK1. Data were collected at a protein concentration of 10 μM using a MicroCal VP-ITC instrument and plotted using Origin 7.0 software.

Next, we sought to further characterize the interaction between SphK1 and PF-543 utilizing a direct binding experiment to explore the thermodynamics of inhibitor binding. ITC measurements demonstrated that PF-543 binds to SphK1 in an enthalpically driven process, with a Kd of 31.3 nM, a ΔHobs of −15.9 kcal/mol (1 kcal=4.184 kJ), a −TΔS of 5.6 kcal/mol and a 1:1 stoichiometry (Figure 3B).

Selectivity of the SphK1 inhibitor PF-543

SphK1 and SphK2 have differential sensitivities to various assay conditions; SphK1 is inhibited by a high salt concentration, whereas SphK2 activity is blocked by a high Triton X-100 concentration [27,28]. We tested the activity of PF-543 against both isoforms of SphK in the Caliper® format of the assay using low concentrations of salt and of Triton X-100 where both enzymes are active. Under these conditions PF-543 showed an IC50 of 356 nM for SphK2 and 2.7 nM for SphK1, indicating 132-fold selectivity for SphK1. We further assessed selectivity of PF-543 inhibition against a panel of 48 human protein and lipid kinases from the Dundee Kinase Consortium (Supplementary Table S1 at http://www.BiochemJ.org/bj/444/bj4440079add.htm) and 37 protein kinases from the Invitrogen kinase profiling panel (results not shown). At a concentration of 10 μM, PF-543 did not significantly inhibit any of the protein or lipid kinases. Most significantly it was ineffective against diacylglycerol kinase α, which, unlike protein kinases, is structurally and evolutionarily related to SphK. In addition, we tested binding of PF-543 and phospho-PF-543 to the S1P receptors S1P1, S1P2, S1P3 and S1P5 as described in the Supplementary Online Data. Both compounds did not bind to any of the S1PRs tested at a concentration of 10 μM (results not shown).

Effect of PF-543 on cellular levels of sphingosine metabolites

PF-543 was chosen for further characterization on the basis of its potency as an enzyme inhibitor and its ability to inhibit incorporation of C17-sphingosine into S1P by 1483 cells (Figure 4A). In addition to monitoring formation of C17-S1P we tested the effects of PF-543 on incorporation of C17-sphingosine into ceramides. We measured accumulation of d17:1/18:0 and d17:1/24:0 species of ceramides 16 h after the addition of C17-sphingosine in 1483 cells treated with PF-543 or with the ceramide synthase inhibitor fumonisin B1 (Figure 4B). In contrast with fumonisin B1 and in contrast with effects on S1P formation, PF-543 treatment increased the accumulation of ceramides synthesized by cells exposed to C17-sphingosine substrate, indicating that PF-543 does not inhibit ceramide synthase in cells but rather, by inhibiting SphK1, it diverts the flux of sphingosine towards increased formation of ceramides. To further validate PF-543 as a tool inhibitor of SphK1, we measured the levels of endogenous S1P, sphingosine and several species of ceramides in 1483 cells pretreated for 1 h with a range of concentrations of PF-543. In untreated 1483 cells we detected a molar ratio of S1P/sphingosine and ceramide of approximately 0.3 and 0.05 respectively. SphK1 inhibition by PF-543 caused a dose-dependent depletion of the intracellular level of S1P with EC50 concentration of 8.4 nM and a concomitant elevation of the intracellular level of sphingosine (Figure 4C). The level of endogenous S1P in 1483 cells after a 1 h treatment with 200 nM inhibitor was decreased 10-fold, producing a proportional increase in the level of sphingosine. The levels of C18:0-, C24:0- and C24:1-ceramides were not significantly affected. We next tested the ability of PF-543 to suppress the intracellular level of S1P for an extended period of time. We grew 1483 cells in 100 μl of culture in the presence of 1 μM PF-543 for 7 days with a daily exchange of medium and measured the level of endogenous S1P and sphingosine 20 h after the last medium exchange. Consistent with the previous 1 h incubation, the extended exposure to PF-543 resulted in a 10-fold decrease in S1P and a 2-fold increase in sphingosine levels in the cells (Figure 5B). Despite the dramatic change in the S1P/sphingosine ratio, 1483 cells treated with PF-543 grew at the same rate as control cells (Figure 5A). Similarly, we observed no effect of PF-543 on the growth of several other cancer cell lines (Figure 5C).

PF-543 modulates incorporation of C17-sphingosine into S1P and ceramides and alters the levels of endogenous sphingolipids in cells

Figure 4
PF-543 modulates incorporation of C17-sphingosine into S1P and ceramides and alters the levels of endogenous sphingolipids in cells

(A) Formation of C17-S1P by 1483 cells pre-incubated for 30 min with a series of dilutions of PF-543 and then for 15 min with C17-sphingosine in the presence of 1% DMSO was assayed using MS as described in the Materials and methods section. The effect of the inhibitor on the amount of the recovered C17-S1P is expressed as the percentage inhibition relative to cells treated with the vehicle (1% DMSO). Data were fitted using GraphPad Prism software; IC50=1.0±0.3 nM (mean±S.D. for three experiments). (B) Effect of PF-543 and fumonisin B1 (FB1) on incorporation of C17-sphingosine into ceramides was measured in 1483 cells after 16 h of incubation as described in the Materials and methods section, and the mean±S.E.M. of five replicates was plotted. The amount of d17:1/18:0 and d17:1/24:0 ceramides measured in the vehicle-treated samples were 0.3 and 4.5 nmol/million cells respectively. (C) PF-543 modulates the levels of endogenous sphingosine and S1P. Lipids were extracted from 1483 cells treated for 1 h at 37°C in medium lacking serum with a range of concentrations of PF-543. Lipids were quantified using MS as described in the Materials and methods section and the amounts are expressed as numbers of pmol/million cells. The data were fitted using GraphPad Prism software.

Figure 4
PF-543 modulates incorporation of C17-sphingosine into S1P and ceramides and alters the levels of endogenous sphingolipids in cells

(A) Formation of C17-S1P by 1483 cells pre-incubated for 30 min with a series of dilutions of PF-543 and then for 15 min with C17-sphingosine in the presence of 1% DMSO was assayed using MS as described in the Materials and methods section. The effect of the inhibitor on the amount of the recovered C17-S1P is expressed as the percentage inhibition relative to cells treated with the vehicle (1% DMSO). Data were fitted using GraphPad Prism software; IC50=1.0±0.3 nM (mean±S.D. for three experiments). (B) Effect of PF-543 and fumonisin B1 (FB1) on incorporation of C17-sphingosine into ceramides was measured in 1483 cells after 16 h of incubation as described in the Materials and methods section, and the mean±S.E.M. of five replicates was plotted. The amount of d17:1/18:0 and d17:1/24:0 ceramides measured in the vehicle-treated samples were 0.3 and 4.5 nmol/million cells respectively. (C) PF-543 modulates the levels of endogenous sphingosine and S1P. Lipids were extracted from 1483 cells treated for 1 h at 37°C in medium lacking serum with a range of concentrations of PF-543. Lipids were quantified using MS as described in the Materials and methods section and the amounts are expressed as numbers of pmol/million cells. The data were fitted using GraphPad Prism software.

Altered ratio of S1P to sphingosine does not affect growth of cancer cells

Figure 5
Altered ratio of S1P to sphingosine does not affect growth of cancer cells

(A) 1483 cells were seeded at 6500 cells per well in a 96-well plate and grown in the presence of 1 μM PF-543 or vehicle (0.01% DMSO) for 7 days with a daily exchange of medium. Cell growth was monitored by measuring the total amount of ATP present in wells. (B) At day 7, 20 h after the last medium change, the cells were washed three times with PBS and the amount of S1P and sphingosine present in cells was determined by MS (mean±S.D. of three replicates). Values plotted are expressed as amount of pmol/million cells. (C) Growth of five cancer cell lines was measured after a 9 day incubation, with a daily medium exchange, in the presence of 1 μM PF-543 or 0.5% DMSO under high- and low-serum growth conditions. The mean±S.D. of six replicates is plotted.

Figure 5
Altered ratio of S1P to sphingosine does not affect growth of cancer cells

(A) 1483 cells were seeded at 6500 cells per well in a 96-well plate and grown in the presence of 1 μM PF-543 or vehicle (0.01% DMSO) for 7 days with a daily exchange of medium. Cell growth was monitored by measuring the total amount of ATP present in wells. (B) At day 7, 20 h after the last medium change, the cells were washed three times with PBS and the amount of S1P and sphingosine present in cells was determined by MS (mean±S.D. of three replicates). Values plotted are expressed as amount of pmol/million cells. (C) Growth of five cancer cell lines was measured after a 9 day incubation, with a daily medium exchange, in the presence of 1 μM PF-543 or 0.5% DMSO under high- and low-serum growth conditions. The mean±S.D. of six replicates is plotted.

Inhibition activity in ex vivo human whole blood

Frequently potent enzyme inhibitors have limited value as pharmacological tools because they lose a significant portion of their potency when tested in the presence of blood due to protein binding, metabolism or other sequestration mechanisms. A significant level of SphK activity is present in blood, and exogenously added C17-sphingosine is rapidly converted into C17-S1P (Figure 6A) [25]. PF-543 was subsequently evaluated for its ability to inhibit formation of C17-S1P in a human blood assay. PF-543 was found to be a potent inhibitor (IC50=26.7 nM) capable of blocking >90% of C17-S1P formation in the blood (Figure 6B).

PF-543 inhibits S1P formation in human whole blood

Figure 6
PF-543 inhibits S1P formation in human whole blood

(A) Kinetics of C17-S1P formation in human whole blood incubated with various concentrations of C17-sphingosine. (B) Human whole blood was pre-incubated for 30 min with the range of concentrations of PF-543 in the presence of 1% DMSO and incubated further for 10 min after the addition of 20 μM C17-sphingosine. C17-S1P was extracted and quantified using MS as described in the Materials and methods section. The data were expressed as the percentage inhibition of the vehicle-treated blood sample, each point is a mean±S.D. of six replicates. The data were fitted using GraphPad Prism, IC50=26.7 nM.

Figure 6
PF-543 inhibits S1P formation in human whole blood

(A) Kinetics of C17-S1P formation in human whole blood incubated with various concentrations of C17-sphingosine. (B) Human whole blood was pre-incubated for 30 min with the range of concentrations of PF-543 in the presence of 1% DMSO and incubated further for 10 min after the addition of 20 μM C17-sphingosine. C17-S1P was extracted and quantified using MS as described in the Materials and methods section. The data were expressed as the percentage inhibition of the vehicle-treated blood sample, each point is a mean±S.D. of six replicates. The data were fitted using GraphPad Prism, IC50=26.7 nM.

DISCUSSION

SphK1 is a principal source of the bioactive lipid S1P which, through tonal regulation of cognate GPCRs (as well as through intracellular actions), regulates trafficking and function of immune cells, affects production of cytokines and chemokines, stimulates angiogenesis, regulates endothelial adhesion and barrier function, and modulates survival and migration of cancer cells. SphK1 is overexpressed in synovial tissues of rheumatoid arthritis patients and in a variety of tumours [29,30]. S1P has recently been implicated as a driver of neuroinflammation and ensuing neurodegeneration [31]. Therefore inhibitors of SphK1 could potentially lead to the development of novel strategies for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, for cancer therapy and for neurodegenerative diseases. In the present paper we describe the discovery and characterization of the first SphK1 inhibitor that is able to inhibit S1P production in cells with a single-digit nanomolar potency. PF-543 was discovered by combining fragments of two screening hits obtained from independent screening campaigns. This hit hybridization strategy resulted in a remarkable two orders of magnitude increase in the potency and produced an inhibitor with outstanding attributes. PF-543 is a reversible inhibitor of SphK1, which directly binds to the enzyme with a binding constant of 5 nM (Figure 3A) and inhibits the enzymatic activity of SphK1 with nearly equal potency in a cell-based assay as in an in vitro enzyme assay (Figures 1B and 4A). PF-543 is an ATP non-competitive inhibitor that competes for binding with sphingosine in the enzyme active site.

The observation that PF-543 is competitive with sphingosine-substrate binding is not unanticipated from the inhibitor structure. One can envision the 2-hydroxymethylpyrrolidine motif present in PF-543 as a ring-constrained isostere of the sphingosine aminopropanediol polar head group. Both PF-543 and sphingosine also have tail motifs of similar length and hydrophobic nature. At this time, the lack of structural information for the SphK lipid kinase family precludes a detailed analysis of inhibitor binding and factors governing isoform selectivity. Nonetheless, the large heat of enthalpy was suggestive of an integrated and favourable interaction network between SphK1 and the inhibitor compound, consisting of both polar and hydrophobic interactions. The unfavourable entropic term for SphK1/PF-543 binding would probably result from the loss of conformational degrees of freedom for both the PF-543 inhibitor and the protein upon inhibitor binding overcoming the entropically favoured displacement of water from the hydrophobic substrate cavity. Ultimately, a crystal structure of the inhibitor–protein complex would provide a wealth of knowledge and allow for a more comprehensive structure-based analysis.

PF-543 is a poor substrate for SphK1 being phosphorylated by the enzyme under in vitro conditions at a rate that is 1500-fold lower than the rate of phosphorylation of sphingosine. Moreover, the rate of phosphorylation of PF-543 by 1483 cells is also over three orders of magnitude lower than the rate of phosphorylation of C17-sphingosine. Such a low rate of metabolism does not interfere with the potency of PF-543 in inhibiting formation of S1P in cells and it should not significantly affect the in vivo clearance of the inhibitor. The phosphorylated form of PF-543 did not bind to four S1PRs tested (S1P1, S1P2, S1P3 and S1P5), indicating that this metabolite does not have biological properties similar to S1P. PF-543 is highly specific for SphK (Supplementary Table S1) and it selectively inhibits the SphK1 isoform of the enzyme.

PF-543 is equally potent in cells as it is in the in vitro enzyme assays. In the 1483 head and neck carcinoma cell line, which expresses a 600-fold higher level of SPHK1 mRNA than SPHK2 mRNA, it reduced the level of endogenous S1P by more than 90% (Figure 5B), increasing at the same time the level of free sphingosine. After treatment for 1 h we observed no effect of PF-543 on endogenous ceramides. However, we noticed that in the C17-sphingosine metabolic labelling experiments in 1483 cells the rate of incorporation of C17-sphingosine is approximately 500-fold lower for ceramides than for S1P. Importantly, PF-543 strongly enhanced incorporation of C17-sphingosine into ceramides, indicating that it does not inhibit ceramide synthase activity but rather, by inhibiting SphK1 and elevating the amount of available sphingosine, it enhances synthesis of ceramides (Figure 4B). In 1483 cells treated with 1 μM PF-543 for 7 days the steady-state level of S1P remained at a 10-fold reduction and the ratio of sphingosine/S1P was increased 20-fold compared with cells treated with the vehicle control (Figure 5B). Despite the dramatically altered S1P/sphingosine ratio, 1483 cells grew at the normal rate and were not morphologically altered. This is in contrast with many reports indicating that growth of various cancer cell lines is SphK1-dependent [4]. The selective SphK1 inhibitor SK1-I was reported to inhibit growth and induce apoptosis in U937 leukaemia and LN229 glioblastoma cell lines [32,33]. We were unable to confirm growth inhibition by blockade of SphK1 activity in U937 and LN229 cells using PF-543 treatment (Figure 5C). This discrepancy most probably results from differences in off-target effects between PF-543 and SK1-I at concentrations efficacious to SphK1, as the latter requires micromolar levels (Ki=10 μM) to achieve significant inhibition. SK1-I is also structurally related to long-chain bases, such as DMS (N,N-dimethylsphingosine) that are toxic to cells at micromolar concentrations. This conclusion is confirmed by recent reports demonstrating that novel amidine-based SphK1-selective inhibitors with improved potency and specificity (Ki=100 nM) have no effect on growth of U-937 cells despite effective inhibition of SphK1 activity resulting in a large decrease in the cellular S1P/sphingosine ratio [34,35].

PF-543 effectively inhibited SphK1 activity in the human whole blood giving an IC50 of 27.6 nM and nearly completely suppressing formation of C17-S1P (Figure 6B). This result confirms conclusions obtained from genetic studies in mice that SphK1 is the major source of S1P in blood [36]. PF-543 is the most potent inhibitor of SphK1 described to date and, together with two recently reported classes of inhibitors with improved potency [34,35,37], it provides a new and valuable tool for the interrogation of biological effects of modulation of S1P signalling resulting from specific inhibition of SphK1 catalytic activity.

Abbreviations

     
  • BAP

    biotin-acceptor peptide

  •  
  • DMEM

    Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium

  •  
  • DTT

    dithiothreitol

  •  
  • FBS

    fetal bovine serum

  •  
  • FP

    fluorescence polarization

  •  
  • GPCR

    G-protein-coupled receptor

  •  
  • ITC

    isothermal titration calorimetry

  •  
  • LC

    liquid chromatography

  •  
  • MRM

    multiple-reaction-monitoring

  •  
  • MS/MS

    tandem MS

  •  
  • Ni-NTA

    Ni2+-nitrilotriacetate

  •  
  • RT

    reverse transcription

  •  
  • SA

    strepavidin

  •  
  • S1P

    sphingosine 1-phosphate

  •  
  • S1PR

    S1P receptor

  •  
  • SphK

    sphingosine kinase

  •  
  • SPR

    surface plasmon resonance

  •  
  • TCEP

    tris-(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine

  •  
  • TEV

    tobacco etch virus

AUTHOR CONTRIBUTION

Marek Nagiec and Mark Schnute designed the experiments; Matthew McReynolds, Kaliapan Iyanar, Jeffrey Scholten and Mark Schnute designed and synthesized the inhibitors; Tom Kasten, Kristin Cukyne and Laura Zawadzke performed the high-throughput screening; Matthew Yates, John Rains, Marek Nagiec, Hideji Fujiwara and Olga Nemirovskiy performed the cell-based assays and LC–MS/MS analysis; Jill Chrencik, Michelle Kraus and Ciaran Cronin performed ITC experiments; Ciaran Cronin and Richard Broadus purified proteins; Troii Hall, Gina Jerome, Matthew Saabye, Marek Nagiec and Arthur Wittwer performed enzyme kinetics experiments; Shinji Ogawa performed RT–PCR studies; Maureen Highkin, Matthew Yates and John Rains performed the whole-blood assay; Vincent Peterkin and Jay Wendling performed the PF-543 phosphorylation study; Troii Hall performed the SPR study; Marek Nagiec wrote the paper, and Mark Schnute, Matthew McReynolds, Tom Kasten, Laura Zawadzke, Matthew Yates, Hideji Fujiwara, Olga Nemirovskiy, Jill Chrencik, Ciaran Cronin, Richard Boardus, Troii Hall, Arthur Wittwer, Shinji Ogawa and Jay Wendling contributed sections of the paper.

We thank Wally Smith, Jaime Masferrer, Craig Wegner and Rita Huff for numerous discussions and support, Professor Dale Boger and Professor Ben Cravatt (The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, U.S.A.) for helpful discussions, Professor Jennifer Rubin Grandis (University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, U.S.A.) for the gift of 1483 cells, and Molly Hall, Marlene Scobell, Grace Munie and Blossom Sneed for help with the Caliper® screen, cell growth assays, S1PR-binding assays and the Transcreener® screen respectively.

FUNDING

This work was funded by Pfizer Inc.

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Supplementary data