ZNF300 plays an important role in the regulation of HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma. However, little is known about the role of ZNF300 in lipid metabolism and NAFLD. In the present study, we observed that ZNF300 expression was markedly decreased in free fatty acid (FFA)-induced fatty liver. Overexpressed ZNF300 alleviated hepatic lipid accumulation, whereas knockdown of ZNF300 enhanced the FFA-induced lipid accumulation. Investigations of the underlying mechanisms revealed that ZNF300 directly binds to and regulates the PPARα expression, thus promoting fatty acid oxidation. Furthermore, bisulfite pyrosequencing PCR (BSP) analysis identified the hypermethylation status of ZNF300 gene in FFA-treated hepatocytes. Importantly, the suppression of ZNF300 could be blocked by DNA methyltransferase inhibitor (5-azadC) or DNMT3a-siRNA. These results suggested that ZNF300 plays an important role in hepatic lipid metabolism via PPARα promoting fatty acid oxidation and this effect might be blocked by DNMT3a-mediated methylation of ZNF300. Therefore, in addition to ZNF300 expression levels, the methylation status of this gene also has a potential as a prognostic biomarker.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common chronic liver disease with increasing prevalence as the numbers of obese or overweight adults and children increase [1,2]. It encompasses a wide spectrum of liver disorders and damage, including simple steatosis, inflammatory non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma [3,4]. The pathogenesis of NAFLD is not well understood, but dysregulation of lipid metabolic in the liver is known to play important roles. Hepatic lipid metabolism is controlled by a series of transcription factors, such as sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP1c), liver X receptor (LXR) and proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) [5,6]. The activation of LXR plays a crucial role in the progression of NAFLD, and its inhibition in tissues or cells reduces the expression of SREBP1C and fatty acid synthase (FAS) in the liver [7,8]. PPARα, a member of the nuclear receptor family of ligand-activated transcription factors, is expressed predominantly in the liver [5,9] and controls the transcription of many genes involved in lipid catabolism [5,9,10]. The activation of PPARα increases the β-oxidation of fatty acids , ketogenesis and reduces cellular lipids [12,13]. Therefore, LXR inactivation and PPARα activation are considered important for the prevention or amelioration of metabolic syndrome.
Zinc finger protein 300 (ZNF300), encoding a KRAB domain and 12 C2H2 type zinc finger domain, belongs to the Krüpple-associated box zinc finger proteins (KRAB-ZFPs) and is exclusively expressed in tetrapod vertebrate . KRAB-ZFPs constitute the largest individual family of transcriptional factors encoded by the higher organisms’ genome  and play an important role in regulating embryonic development, cell differentiation, proliferation and malignant transformation [16,17]. ZNF300 binds to C(t/a)GGGGG(g/c)G sequences that are found in the promoter regions of some genes, such as IL-2, IL-2Rβ, CD44, TNFα, and it can activate IL-2Rβ promoter activity [14,18]. Previous studies suggest that ZNF300 can enhance metastasis of cancer cells by activating NF-κB pathway  and plays crucial roles in leukemogenesis [18,19]. In addition, we also found that the zinc finger regions of ZNF300 gene can mediate the gene transcriptional repression through DNA methylation and histone acetylation . Recently, one study showed that the hypermethylation of ZNF300 during HBV-related hepatocellular carcinogenesis (HCC) development is coupled with decreased gene expression . Since the last stage of NAFLD development is HCC, whether ZNF300 is involved in the regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism during the development of NAFLD has not been investigated.
In the present study, we examined the expression of ZNF300 in the hepatocytes treated with free fatty acids (FFAs). To identify the role of ZNF300 in hepatic lipid metabolism, we evaluated alterations in lipid droplets and the contents of TG (triglyceride) in hepatocytes after ZNF300 overexpression and knockdown. We found that ZNF300 prevented FFA-induced hepatic steatosis mainly through promoting fatty acid oxidation. Then we preliminarily explored the molecular mechanism of the hepatic lipid metabolism modulated by ZNF300 and found ZNF300 could induce the expression of PPARα by directly binding to its promoter. In addition, we also found the ZNF300 methylation level dramatically increased in fatty liver. Collectively, the expression of ZNF300 is controlled by DNA methylation and ZNF300 regulates lipid metabolism through a PPARα-dependent manner in the liver.
Materials and methods
All mice care and experimental procedures were approved by the Jiangsu Normal University. A mouse NAFLD model was established through feeding mice on HFD (60% kcal from fat; D-12492; Research Diets, NJ) for 18 weeks starting at the age of 8 weeks, whereas NCD-fed mice were maintained on a normal diet (10% kcal from fat, D-12450B). Food and water were provided ad libitum. Mice were kept at room temperature (22–24°C) with a 12 h light–dark cycle.
The 50 mM palmitate (Sigma–Aldrich) and 50 mM oleic acid (Sigma–Aldrich) stock solutions were prepared in 50% ethanol and filtered through a 0.22 μm membrane. The 10% mass–volume fatty acid-free BSA solution was prepared. Finally, palmitate:oleate solution (FFAs) with a 1:2 ratio and the final concentration of 1% BSA were added to DMEM to prepare a 1 mM free fatty acid-BSA solution.
Cell culture and treatments
Human hepatocellular carcinoma cells HepG2, L02 and HEK (human embryonic kidney)-293 T cells were cultured in a complete Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM, Gibco BRL, NY, U.S.A.). The medium was supplemented with 10% (v/v) fetal bovine serum and 1% (v/v) penicillin/streptomycin (Gibco, NY, U.S.A.). All cells were cultured in a humidified chamber with 5% CO2 atmosphere at 37°C. To induce fatty liver model, HepG2 and L02 cells were starved for 12 h before stimulated with or without 1 mM PA/OA for 24 h.
Lentivirus-mediated gene transfer
HEK293 T cells were transfected with phage-6tag-ZNF300, empty vector, pLKO1-shZNF300-1#, pLKO1-shZNF300-2#, pLKO1-scramble along with the packing vectors pSPAX2 and pMD2.G. After transfection for 8 h, the medium was changed with fresh complete medium and 48 h later, the supernatants were harvested to infect HepG2 or L02 cells followed by puromycin selection for 1 week for various analyses.
The promoter of PPARα (−1000 to +150 relative to the transcription start site) was amplified by PCR using primers (5′-CCG CTCGAG GTCACGGCCC GAACAAAG-3′; 5′-CCC AAGCTT CGTCCGCCGC CCTCCG-3′) containing Xho I and Hind III restriction enzyme sites at each end from the human genome and subcloned into the pGL3-basic vector. The point mutation of the pGL3-PPARα vector was constructed by PCR amplifying the whole vector using primers with mutant sites (5′-GGCTCGCGCGGACCGGGGCAAAAAACGGGCCGAGG-3′; 5′-TTTTTTGCCCCGGTCCGCGCGAGCCAGTGTCCCG-3′). The deleted mutation of pGL3-PPARα vector was constructed using the over-lap PCR method. The all constructed vectors were identified by DNA sequencing.
RNA isolation and quantitative real-time PCR
Total RNA was extracted from cells using TRIzol reagent (Invitrogen, Grand Island, NY, U.S.A.) according to the manufacturer's instructions. cDNA was synthesized using the PrimeScript RT Reagent Kit with gDNA Eraser (Takara, Japan) according to the manufacturer's protocol. The quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed with SYBR Green PCR Master Mix (DBI-2044, Germany) with triplicates on the ABI step one plus real-time PCR system. For each primer set, the Ct value was normalized to that of β-actin as the inner control, which was further normalized to that of the control sample. The relative quantitation of PCR products was measured using the comparative Ct method and presented as relative mRNA level.
Cellular proteins were extracted using RIPA lysis buffer. Subsequently, equal amounts of protein were separated by SDS–PAGE gels and transferred onto PVDF membranes (Millipore, U.S.A.). Primary antibodies against Flag (Sigma, F3165), ZNF300 (Sigma, SAB2102853), PPARα (Abcam, ab191226) and β-actin (CST, #4970) were incubated overnight at 4°C and visualized by ECL (Millpore).
RNA interference analysis
RNA interference (RNAi) experiments in HepG2 cells were performed by using Lipofectamine 2000 (Invitrogen, U.S.A.) according to the manufacturer's protocol. For DNMT1, DNMT3a and PPARα silencing, cells were transfected with DNMT1-siRNA, DNMT3a-siRNA, PPARα-siRNA or negative control siRNA (Sangon Biotech, China). The following siRNA sequences were used: DNMT1-siRNA (sense: 5′-CAGAACAAGAAUCGCA UCUUU-3′ and antisense: 5′-AGAUGCGAUUCUUGUUCUGUU-3′); DNMT3a-siRNA (sense: 5′-CUUUGAUGGAAUCGCUACAUU-3′ and antisense: 5′- UGUAG CGAUUCCAUCAAAGUU-3′); PPARα-siRNA (sense: 5′-CAUUUGCUGUG GAGA UCGUUU-3′ and antisense: 5′-ACGAUCUCCACAGCAAAUGUU-3′); siRNA-control with scrambled sequence: (sense: 5′-UUCUCCGAACGUGUCACGUUU-3′ and antisense: 5′-ACGUGACACGUUCGGAGAAUU-3′).
Oil Red O staining
Prior to staining, the stock solution of Oil Red O (Sigma–Aldrich) was diluted with deionized water at a 3:2 ratio. The cells were fixed with 3.7% formaldehyde for 1 h and washed three times with PBS. Before staining with Oil Red O solution, the cells were treated with 60% isopropyl alcohol for 2 min, and then stained for 10 min at room temperature. Finally, the cells were washed with 60% isopropyl alcohol for less than 5 s and with PBS washed several times. Stained lipid droplets were observed using a microscope and captured at 200× magnification. The stained lipid droplets were eluted with 100% isopropanol, and the optical density was detected using a spectrophotometer at the 520 nm wavelength.
Intracellular TG assay
For triglyceride detection, the treated hepatocytes were incubated with lysis buffer for 10 min and then heated at 70°C for 10 min, followed by centrifugation at 2000 rpm for 5 min at room temperature. The supernatant was evaluated using a triglyceride assay kit (Applygen-E1013, Beijing, China) at 550 nm.
Dual luciferase activity assay
HEK293 T cells or HepG2 cells (2 × 104) cultured in 24-well plates were transfected with the reporter plasmid (200 ng) in combination with other plasmid as indicated in figures. The vector pRL-TK (20 ng) expressing Renilla luciferase was used in all samples and served as internal control. Cells were lysed 24 h post-transfection with passive lysis buffer and the dual luciferase activity was assayed by the dual luciferase reporter assay kit (Promega) according to the manufacturer's instructions. The firefly luciferase activity was normalized to the renilla luciferase activity and presented as relative luciferase activity.
Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays
Cells were fixed with 1% formaldehyde and quenched by glycine and then washed three times with PBS and harvested in ChIP lysis buffer (50 mM Tris–HCl pH 8.0, 1% SDS, 5 mM EDTA) followed by sonication until DNA reached 400–600 bp. The lysates were centrifuged at 4°C for 15 min and ChIP dilution buffer (20 mM Tris–HCl pH 8.0, 150 mM NaCl, 2 mM EDTA, 1% Triton X-100) was added to the supernatant. The resulted lysates were then incubated with the protein G beads and anti-Flag (Sigma, Cat#F3156) or control IgG at 4°C for 4 h. DNA was eluted using the ChIP elution buffer (0.1 M NaHCO3, 1% SDS, 30 μg/ml proteinase K) through incubation at 65°C overnight, and the DNA was purified with a DNA purification kit (TIANGE). The purified DNA was assayed by quantitative PCR.
Bisulfite sequencing PCR
DNA from cells was extracted using DNA extraction kit following the manufacturer's instructions. DNA bisulfite sequencing, wildly used to detect 5-methylcyosine in DNA, is conducted as described previously . The primers for BSP at the locus of CpG island (5′-AAAGTGTGTTTTTTAATGTTTTTTT-3′; 5′-CATAACTACTCCCTAAAACT ATTTCC-3′) were designed for ZNF300 using the Methprime database (http://www.urogene.org/methprimer/). In brief, 500 ng genomic DNA was bisulfite converted using EZ DNA Methylation-Gold Kit™ according to the manufacturer's instructions. The converted DNA was used as the template for PCR amplification and the PCR products were subcloned into a pMD-19-T vector. For each gene, 10 clones were selected for sequencing and analyzing the sequence using DNAMan program.
Determination of S-adenosylmethionine and S-adenosylhomocysteine
The concentrations of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) were determined in HepG2 and L02 cells with or without FFA treatment for 24 h. The indicated cells (5 × 106 cells) were resuspended in 500 μl PBS and the cellular contents were released by repeated freeze–thaw. Homogenates were centrifuged at 3000 rpm/min for 20 min at 4°C, then the supernatants were collected. The concentrations of SAM and SAH in the supernatants were measured using the ELISA method (YI FEI XUE Bio TECH) according to the manufacturer's instructions.
Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software (version 24.0). Data combined from three or more independent experiments are given as the mean ± SD. Statistical significance was determined by a one-way ANOVA (Dunnett's test) among more than two groups. Student's t-test (two-tailed, unpaired) was performed to compare the difference between the two groups. A P-value of 0.05 or less was considered significant.
ZNF300 expression is decreased in FFA-induced hepatic steatosis
To examine the effect of FFAs on lipid accumulation in hepatocytes, HepG2 and L02 cells were treated with palmitate:oleate solution. Oil Red O staining showed that FFA treatment caused a time-dependent increase in lipid accumulation in HepG2 and L02 cells (Figure 1A,B). We also found the number and size of the lipid droplets significantly increased when cells were treated for 24 h. Moreover, the contents of TG in hepatocytes gradually increased with the extension of the induction time of FFAs (Figure 1C). These results showed that we have successfully constructed an in vitro fatty liver model. According to previous reports, ZNF300 plays a vital role in HBV-related HCC . However, it is less known whether ZNF300 is involved in the development of NAFLD. To resolve this question, we first investigated the expression of ZNF300 in vitro fatty liver model. As shown in Figure 1D,E, the expression of ZNF300 at both the mRNA and protein levels was decreased in a time-dependent manner in hepatocytes, suggesting that ZNF300 may be involved in the development of hepatic steatosis.
ZNF300 expression is decreased in FFA-induced hepatic steatosis.
ZNF300 protects hepatocytes from FFA-induced steatosis
To investigate the role of ZNF300 in FFA-induced hepatic steatosis, we overexpressed ZNF300 using lentivirus gene transfer in hepatic cells (HepG2 and L02) and the overexpression efficiencies of ZNF300 were confirmed at mRNA and protein levels (Figure 2A). Compared with the control group, overexpression of ZNF300 ameliorates FFA-induced lipid droplet accumulation in L02 and HepG2 cells (Figure 2B,C). In addition, overexpression of ZNF300 also markedly decreased FFA-induced intracellular TG deposition (Figure 2D). We next measured the expression of related genes involved in lipid metabolism. As expected, FFAs could stimulate the gene expression involved in lipogenesis and inhibit the gene expression related to fatty acid oxidation, lipid secretion as well as lipolysis. In the presence of FFAs, ZNF300 could significantly enhance the expression of genes related to fatty acid oxidation and reduce the expression of a few lipogenic genes; however, it had no obvious effects on lipolysis (Figure 2E). Collectively, these data are indicative that ZNF300 overexpression alleviates the lipid accumulation induced by FFAs in hepatocytes mainly through regulating fatty acid oxidation and lipogenesis.
ZNF300 protects hepatocytes from FFA-induced steatosis.
Knockdown of ZNF300 aggravates hepatic lipid accumulation
To further validate the effect of ZNF300 on the hepatic lipid metabolism, we transfected hepatocytes with short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting ZNF300. The knockdown efficiencies of ZNF300 in L02 and HepG2 cells were confirmed by real-time PCR and Western blot (Figure 3A,B). We found that, compared with the scramble group, knockdown of ZNF300 significantly aggravated the FFA-induced hepatic steatosis in HepG2 and L02 cells (Figure 3C–E). Furthermore, the silence of ZNF300 further enhanced the expression of genes related to lipogenesis and also slightly decreased the expression levels of genes involved in the fatty acid oxidation (Figure 3F). Consistently, knockdown of ZNF300 still had no obvious effect on the lipolysis compared with the control group (Figure 3F). These data provided additional evidence that ZNF300 plays an important role in fatty acid metabolism in hepatocytes.
Knockdown of ZNF300 aggravates hepatic lipid accumulation.
ZNF300 directly regulates the expression of PPARα
Since PPARα expression was influenced by the alterations in ZNF300 expression even without the FFA treatment (Figures 2E, 3F and 4A), we speculate that ZNF300 may directly regulate PPARα expression. First, we examined the effect of ZNF300 on some response element related to metabolism or proliferation. As shown in Figure 4B,C, overexpression of ZNF300 significantly enhanced PPARα and slightly inhibited LXR activity in reporter assays, while knockdown of ZNF300 has an opposite effect. Next, we analyzed the sequences of PPARα and LXR promoters and found that there is one conserved ZNF300-binding site (CAGGGGGCG) in the upstream 142–150 bp of PPARα promoter (Figure 4D). Furthermore, there still exists five non-conserved sites in the PPARα promoter (+240 bp to −100 bp), which contains the core sequencing (GGGGG) of ZNF300 binding (Figure 4H). To further confirm whether ZNF300 was able to directly bind and regulate the PPARα, luciferase assay in HepG2 cells was performed. We observed that overexpression of ZNF300 increased the activity of PPARα in a dose-dependent manner (Figure 4E). Consistently, the activity of PPARα was increased by ZNF300 overexpression and reduced by the knockdown of ZNF300 in HepG2 cells (Figure 4F). In addition, we also found that mutation or deletion of the conserved binding sites of ZNF300 greatly inhibited the activity of PPARα (Figure 4G). To further substantiate this conclusion, an exogenous Flag-ZNF300 was overexpressed and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay with Flag antibody was performed to detect whether ZNF300 binds to these sites. As shown in Figure 4H, ZNF300 showed a strong binding activity to the conserved binding site and a weak binding activity to the non-conserved binding sites. These data together suggest that ZNF300 directly regulates the expression of PPARα.
ZNF300 regulates the expression of PPARα.
PPARα mediates the effects of ZNF300 on hepatic lipid metabolism
To explore whether PPARα mediates the effects of ZNF300 on hepatic lipid metabolism, we performed PPARα reverse experiments in HepG2 cells. We transfected the siRNA of PPARα into the HepG2 cells stably expressing ZNF300 and the inhibition efficiency of PPARα was shown in Figure 5A. We also found that silencing PPARα led to the inhibition of its target genes related to hepatic fatty acid oxidation (Figure 5B). Furthermore, Oil Red O staining showed that the FFA-induced lipid accumulation and the triglyceride contents in ZNF300 overexpression cells were reversed by si-PPARα (Figure 5C,D). Taken together, these data indicate that PPARα plays an important role in mediating the effects of ZNF300 on hepatic lipid metabolism.
PPARα mediates the effects of ZNF300 on hepatic lipid metabolism.
DNA methylation regulates the expression of ZNF300 in hepatic steatosis
We next attempted to gain insight into the mechanism of ZNF300 down-regulation in FFA-induced hepatic steatosis. TCGA data indicate that ZNF300 DNA methylation is significantly higher in the liver hepatocellular carcinoma (LIHC) cohort (0.282) than those in normal samples (0.19) (P < 0.05) (Figure 6A) and there is a strong negative correlation between ZNF300 methylation and expression (Figure 6B). To investigate whether DNA methylation controls variation of ZNF300 in the development of hepatic steatosis, we performed the BSP assay to examine the methylation status of ZNF300 CpG island, which is located at −123 bp to +93 bp from TSS and contains 25 CpG sites in total (Figure 6C). As shown in Figure 6D, the average methylation rate across the 25 CpG sites increased significantly in HepG2 cells with FFA treatment (19.29%), compared with the control group (3.21%). In addition, we also found FFA treatment increased SAM level and decreased SAH concentration, thereby increasing methylation potential in the hepatic steatosis (Figure 6E). To further confirm that the down-regulation of ZNF300 in hepatic steatosis is due to its hypermethylation status, hepatocytes were treated with 5AzadC (10 μM) and FFAs. When treated with 5-AzadC, hepatocytes showed a significant increase in ZNF300 expression compared with those with FFAs only (Figure 6F). In addition, 5-AzadC treatment also alleviates the lipid accumulation induced by FFAs in HepG2 cells (Figure 6G). In summary, these data suggest that DNA methylation regulates the expression of ZNF300 in hepatic steatosis.
DNA methylation regulates the expression of ZNF300 in hepatic steatosis.
Silencing of DNMT3a blocked FFA-induced down-regulation of ZNF300
In mammalians, DNA methylation is catalyzed by three different DNA methyltransferases: DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b . First, we tested the expression level of these DNA methyltransferases in the progression of hepatic steatosis. As illustrated in Figure 7A,B, FFA treatment caused a significant increase in DNMT1 and DNMT3a expression in L02 and HepG2 cells. However, DNMT3b levels did not show significant variation. Next, we investigated which DNMT might be responsible for the inhibition of ZNF300 in hepatic steatosis by siRNA experiment. As compared with scrambled-siRNA, both siRNA (si-DNMT1 and si-DNMT3a) induced a significant decrease in FFA-induced L02 or HepG2 cells (Figure 7C–F). However, ZNF300 expression up-regulation was observed only in the cells transfected with si-DNMT3a (Figure 7D,F). These results indicated that DNMT3a might contribute to the down-regulation of ZNF300 through DNA methylation in FFA-induced hepatic steatosis.
Silencing of DNMT3a blocked FFA-induced down-regulation of ZNF300.
NAFLD is defined as a fatty liver not due to excess alcohol consumption or other cause of steatosis , and it has emerged as one of the most common liver diseases worldwide. It encompasses a broad spectrum of conditions, from simple steatosis, through NASH, to fibrosis and ultimately cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma . As NAFLD is often associated with obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes , it is considered as the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome . The pathogenesis of NAFLD is thought to be a multifactorial, such as lifestyle habits, nutritional factors and genetics. However, the pathogenesis and underlying mechanism of NAFLD caused by genetics have not been fully elucidated .
ZNF300, which is located on chromosome 5q33.1, possesses an amino-terminal KRAB domain and 12 carboxyl-terminal C2H2 zinc finger motifs. ZNF300 is localized to the nucleus, and the KRAB domain of this protein has transcription repressor activities [15,18]. In addition, it has been reported to promote tumor development by activating the NF-κB pathway, in which it plays a vital role during tumor development in inflamed tissue . The prevalence and molecular mechanisms underlying inflammation have been extensively studied because inflammation is a risk factor for a subset of diseases. Furthermore, one study indicated that the aberrant methylation of ZNF300 leads to the dysregulation of its expression, which contributes to HBV-related HCC development . The injury of hepatic cells by FFA-induced lipid accumulation results in inflammation and may later progress to NASH even to HCC. However, little was known about the role of ZNF300 in the development of NAFLD.
In the present study, we described a novel role and mechanism for ZNF300 in the regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism. Our findings indicate that ZNF300 expression levels decreased in FFA-induced fatty liver models, and ZNF300 overexpression or down-regulation remarkably protected or aggravated the hepatocellular lipid accumulation. Excessive accumulation of hepatic triglycerides can occur as a result of increased fat synthesis or reduced fatty acid oxidation [4,27]. It is well established that PPARα plays a central role in the fatty acid catabolism by directly stimulating the transcription of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation . In the present study, we found for the first time that ZNF300 could bind to the promoter of PPARα (Figure 4G,H) and positively regulate its expression (Figure 4A). As well, we also identified that ZNF300 was involved in the regulation of fatty acid oxidation mainly through PPARα activation (Figure 5). In addition, overexpression of ZNF300 could inhibit the activity of LXR to some extent; however, there are no binding sites of ZNF300 on the promoter of LXR gene, which suggests that ZNF300 may indirectly regulate the activity of LXR. Since LXR plays important roles in regulating the transcriptional effect on the enzymes involved in fatty acid synthesis and triglyceride synthesis, such as Fas, acetylCoA carboxylase (ACC) and steroyl-CoA desaturase 1 (Scd1) [29,30], this explained the phenomenon that ZNF300 could inhibit the lipogenesis (Figure 2E). Interestingly, we found ZNF300 could significantly inhibit AP1 activity in the reporter assays (Figure 4B,C). In the present study, hepatic AP1 mRNA expression was then analyzed. We found Fra-1 and JunD mRNA levels were markedly reduced in the FFA-induced liver cells, while the expressions of c-fos, FosB, Fra-2, c-Jun and JunB were not affected by the FFAs (Supplementary Figure S1A,B). Further studies indicated that ZNF300 could directly bind to the promoter of JunD and play a negative regulation role in its expression (Supplementary Figure S1C–E). Several studies have demonstrated that JunD is essential for NAFLD development [31,32], indicating ZNF300 may play a role in hepatic steatosis through AP1 pathway. Altogether, our data demonstrate that ZNF300 is an important regulator for the hepatic steatosis and the beneficial effects of ZNF300 are at least partially due to promoting fatty acid oxidation as well as the suppression of hepatic de novo lipogenesis. However, ZNF300 functional study in vivo has been impeded due to its lack of orthologous in mice.
The emerging field of epigenetics, an inheritable phenomenon that can affect gene expression without altering the DNA sequence, provides a new perspective on the pathogenesis of NAFLD . DNA methylation, as one of the major epigenetic changes, plays a central role in the regulation of gene expression, representing a level of epigenetic regulation commonly associated with transcriptional repression . The CpG island is commonly present with higher frequency at the promoter regions of the genes than at other DNA sites. Hypermethylation of CpG islands is generally related to gene silencing, whereas hypomethylation is associated with gene activation. Aberrant patterns of DNA methylation seem to be the starting point for carcinogenesis, especially in NAFLD-related liver diseases . Recently, we reported that the abnormal DNA methylation of ZNF300 caused its expression dysregulation and led to leukemogenesis . In the present study, we found that ZNF300 promoter methylation was increased in FFA-induced hepatic steatosis compared with that with no FFA treatment (Figure 6D). In addition, we also demonstrated that the expression of ZNF300 reduced owing to DNA methylation in hepatic steatosis (Figures 6F and 7D,F), which may be a critical event in NAFLD progression. A recent epigenomic study also suggested that DNA methylation is significantly associated with NAFLD activity score and it has shown obvious differences in several CpG sites . It appears that the DNA methylation status at specific CpG could be useful for predicting the progression of NAFLD. So further studies are necessary to explore the DNA methylation status of ZNF300 at specific CpG using liver biopsy samples from NAFLD patients.
In the present study, we found that elevated DNMT3a was involved in the down-regulation of ZNF300 in FFA-induced hepatic steatosis (Figure 7). We also measured the methylation cycler metabolites and found that the concentration of SAM and the SAM: SAH ratio were increased (Figure 6E). Surprisingly, these results are opposite to that in the liver of HFD-fed mice (Supplementary Figure S2). This may be due to the difference between in vitro and in vivo as well as the different stimulus. For example, Glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) is a key protein in transmethylation by removing excess SAM and maintaining a constant SAM: SAH ratio [37,38], the deficiency of which in mice leads to the accumulation of hepatic SAM and the development of steatosis [39,40]. Nevertheless, various studies have shown that the GNMT is absent from patients with spontaneous liver disease and HCC cell lines [40–42]. We suspect that the loss of GNMT in our cell lines may lead to the accumulation of SAM and increase in the SAM:SAH ratio. But the exact mechanism of SAM accumulation in our study is not clear and needs more investigations.
Collectively, our study and previous study suggest that either too much or too little hepatic SAM as well as abnormal SAM:SAH ratios may result in the development of NAFLD. Moreover, our work indicates that the methylation status of ZNF300 plays a key role in the hepatic steatosis by regulating the PPARα activation. Thus, the expression and methylation level of ZNF300 can be aimed as a marker for diagnosis in clinical practice.
bisulfite pyrosequencing PCR
Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium
fatty acid synthase
free fatty acids
human embryonic kidney
Krüpple-associated box zinc finger proteins
liver hepatocellular carcinoma
liver X receptor
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
quantitative real-time PCR
short hairpin RNA
sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c
the cancer genome altas
Zinc finger protein 300
F-J. Y. and Y-J. W. conceived and supervised the study; F-J. Y., Y-J. W. and Y-L. Z. designed experiments; F-J. Y., Y-J. W., S-R. Y. performed experiments; F-J. Y. and J. L. performed data analysis and interpretation; F-J. Y. and Y-J. W. drafted the paper and all authors read and approved the final manuscript.
This work was supported by the Grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China [nos 81800521 and 31870778], Natural Science Foundation by Jiangsu Normal University [17XLR033 and 17XLR032].
We thank Zan Huang professor, Dr Zhou Jiang, Min Wang from the College of Life Science Wuhan University for their technical help.
The Authors declare that there are no competing interests associated with the manuscript.