A method has been developed for the separation of the major membrane fractions of Acanthamoeba castellanii after growth at different temperatures. The acyl-lipid compositions of individual membrane fractions, microsomal membranes, plasma membrane and mitochondria were analysed after a shift in culture temperature from 30 degrees C to 15 degrees C. The major change in lipid composition observed was an alteration in the relative proportions of oleate and linoleate. This reciprocal change was seen in all the membrane fractions, but occurred most rapidly in the phosphatidylcholine of the microsomal fraction. Thus, there appears to be a rapid induction of delta 12-desaturase activity in A. castellanii after a downward shift in growth temperature. Changes were also seen in the proportions of the n-6 C20 fatty acids, with a decrease in the proportions of icosadienoate and increases of icosatrienoate and arachidonate. However, unlike the alteration in oleate/linoleate ratios, this change was not seen in all the individual lipids of each membrane fraction.
Adaptation of methanol-grown C. boidinii to ethanol-utilization in non-growing cells resulted in decreased activity of the peroxisomal enzyme alcohol oxidase. Re-appearance of alcohol oxidase activity was dependent on protein synthesis de novo. Degradation of alcohol oxidase protein was shown to parallel the decrease in activity. Adaptation of methanol-grown cells to ethanol-utilization resulted in increased absorbance due to cytochromes and decreased absorbance due to flavoprotein. Decrease in alcohol oxidase activity was associated with loss of the flavin coenzyme, FAD, from the organisms and the appearance of flavins (FAD, FMN, riboflavin) in the surrounding medium. Electron microscopic observations showed that general degradation of whole peroxisomes rather than specific loss of crystalline cores (alcohol oxidase protein) occurred during the adaptation.
This paper reports for the first time the presence in the anaerobic rumen ciliate Dasytricha ruminantium (Schuberg) of microbody-like organelles, about 0.5 micrometer diameter, with a granular matrix and an equilibrium density of approx. 1.18 g/ml. These organelles can be isolated in a fraction sedimented at 10(5) g-min that contains 67% of the total pyruvate synthase (EC 184.108.40.206), 66% of the hydrogenase (EC 220.127.116.11) and 20% of the lactate dehydrogenase (EC 18.104.22.168). Thus in several respects this fraction is enzymically similar to those containing hydrogenosomes in some other parasitic anaerobic protozoa (the trichomonads). However, in contrast with the hydrogenosomes of trichomonads, the oxygen-tolerant enzyme malate dehydrogenase (decarboxylating) (EC 22.214.171.124) is not particulate, but occurs only in the cytosol. These results enable the proposal of a scheme for the pathway of product formation (acetate, lactate, CO2 and H2) from carbohydrates.