The effects of verapamil, a calcium antagonist, on lipolysis in isolated rat adipocytes were studied. Verapamil (100 microM) potentiated lipolysis due to dibutyryl cyclic AMP (Bt2cAMP) at submaximal concentrations, with or without extracellular Ca2+. Lipolysis due to 0.5 mM-Bt2cAMP was potentiated by verapamil in a dose-dependent manner up to 200 microM, whereas at concentrations higher than 100 microM the stimulatory effect of verapamil was progressively diminished with or without extracellular Ca2+. Verapamil showed only an inhibitory effect on lipolysis due to adrenaline (0.1-10 microM) or 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX; 25-200 microM). The stimulatory effect of verapamil on lipolysis due to Bt2cAMP was not blocked by alpha-adrenergic antagonists. These results suggest (i) that verapamil has a biphasic effect on lipolysis due to Bt2cAMP and only an inhibitory effect on that due to adrenaline or IBMX, and (ii) that extracellular Ca2+ or alpha-adrenergic receptors are not involved in the action of verapamil.
The effects of dithiothreitol on basal glucose oxidation, hormone-induced lipolysis and insulin receptors in isolated rat adipocytes were studied. Dithiothreitol produced a dose-dependent stimulation of basal glucose oxidation and inhibition of adrenaline-induced lipolysis. Dithiothreitol also inhibited corticotropin-induced lipolysis, but failed to inhibit dibutyryl cyclic AMP-induced lipolysis. Dithiothreitol did not inhibit the binding of the beta-adrenergic antagonist [3H]dihydroalprenolol to adipocytes. Neither catalase (100 micrograms/ml) nor EDTA (2 mM) abolished the antilipolytic effect of dithiothreitol. Treatment of isolated adipocytes with 1 mM-dithiothreitol for 20 min at 37 degrees C also caused stimulation of basal glucose oxidation and inhibition of adrenaline-induced lipolysis. A Scatchard plot of insulin binding to control adipocytes was curvilinear. However, treatment of cells with 1 mM-dithiothreitol decreased the curvilinearity of the plot, indicating that only a low-affinity state of the insulin receptors exists in the dithiothreitol-treated adipocytes. These findings suggest that the insulin-like activities of dithiothreitol are mediated through the interaction of dithiothreitol with insulin receptors.