1. Interaction of bilirubin with collagen fibrils was explored in a two-phase system where collagen was present as an opaque rigid gel composed of striated fibrils, and bilirubin as an aqueous solution. 2. The Ka value of the binding of bilirubin to collagen fibrils is 5.4 X 10(3)M-1. The interaction of bilirubin with collagen fibrils depends on temperature. Below 5 degrees C, the binding is greatly diminished and denaturation of collagen fibril aggregates at 52--53 degrees C into a dissolution state abolishes binding of bilirubin. 3. Salicylate and sulphanilamide do not affect the binding of bilirubin to reconstituted collagen fibrils. 4. Serum albumin (40–80mM), known to reverse the binding of bilirubin to lipids, dissociates only 50% of the bilirubin bound to collagen fibrils. This suggests that sites located on collagen participate in some tight binding of bilirubin and the corresponding binding sites on albumin do not compete with them. 5. Urea (4M) abolishes more than 70% of the binding of bilirubin to collagen. Urea and thermal denaturation studies indicate the importance of conformation and organization of collagen fibrillar aggregates for the binding of bilirubin.