Although the cytoplasmic portion of the low-affinity receptor for immunoglobulin G, Fc gamma RII, does not contain a kinase domain, rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of intracellular substrates occurs in response to aggregation of the receptor. The use of specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors has suggested that these phosphorylations are required for subsequent cellular responses. We previously demonstrated the coprecipitation of a tyrosine kinase activity with Fc gamma RII, suggesting that non-receptor tyrosine kinases might associate with the cytoplasmic domain of Fc gamma RII. Anti-receptor immune complex kinase assays revealed the coprecipitation of several phosphoproteins, most notably p56/53lyn, an Src-family protein tyrosine kinase (PTK), and a 72 kDa phosphoprotein. Here we identify the 72 kDa Fc gamma RII-associated protein as p72syk (Syk), a member of a newly described family of non-receptor PTKs. A rapid and transient tyrosine phosphorylation of Syk was observed following Fc gamma RII activation. Syk was also tyrosyl-phosphorylated following aggregation of the high-affinity Fc gamma receptor, Fc gamma RI. The Fc gamma RI activation did not result in association of Syk with Fc gamma RII, implying that distinct pools of Syk are activated upon aggregation of each receptor in a localized manner. These results demonstrate a physical association between Syk and Fc gamma RII and suggest that the molecules involved in Fc gamma RII signalling are very similar to the ones utilized by multichain immune recognition receptors such as the B-cell antigen receptor and the high-affinity IgE receptor.