Rat intestinal trehalase was solubilized, purified and reconstituted into proteoliposomes. With octyl glucoside as the solubilizing detergent, the purified protein appeared as a single band on SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis with an apparent molecular mass of 67 kDa. Kinetic studies indicated that the active site of this enzyme can be functionally divided into two adjacent regions, namely a binding site (with pKa 4.8) and a catalytic site (with pKa 7.2). Other findings suggested that the catalytic site contains a functional thiol group, which is sensitive to inhibition by N-ethylmaleimide, Hg2+ and iodoacetate. Substrate protection and iodoacetate labelling of the thiol group demonstrated that only a protein of 67 kDa was labelled. Furthermore, sucrose and phlorizin protected the thiol group, but Tris-like inhibitors did not. Structure-inhibition analysis of Tris-like inhibitors, the pH effect of Tris inhibition and Tris protection of 1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodi-imide inactivation permitted characterization and location of a separate site containing a carboxy group for Tris binding, which may also be the binding region. On the basis of these findings, a possible structure for the active site of trehalase is proposed.
The biosynthesis of membrane proteins and glycoproteins has been studied in rat intestinal crypt and villus cells by measuring the incorporation of L-[5,6-3H] fucose, D-[2-3H] mannose and L-[3,4,5-3H] leucine, given intraperitoneally, into Golgi, lateral-basal and luminal membranes. Incorporation of leucine and mannose was approximately equal in crypt and villus cells, whereas fucose incorporation was markedly higher (3-4 times) in the differentiated villus cells. As previously reported [Quaroni, Kirsch & Weiser (1979) Biochem J. 182. 203-212] most of the fucosylated glyco-proteins synthesized in the villus cells and initially present in the Golgi and lateral-basal membranes were found re-distributed, within 3-4h of label administration, in the luminal membrane. A similar process appeared to occur in the crypt cells, where, however, only few fucose-labelled glycoproteins were identified. In contrast, most of the leucine-labelled and many mannose-labelled membrane components found in the lateral-basal membrane of both crypt and villus cells did not seen to undergo a similar re-distribution process. The fucosylated glycoproteins of the intestinal epithelial cells represent, therefore, a special class of membrane components, most of which appear with differentiation, that are selectively localized in the luminal portion of the plasmalemma. In contrast with the marked differences in protein and glycoprotein patterns between the luminal membrane of villus and crypt cells, only minor differences were found between their lateral-basal membrane components: their protein patterns on sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide slab gels, and the patterns of fucose-, mannose- and leucine-labelled components (analysed 3-4h after label administration) were very similar. Although the minor differences detected may be of importance, it appears that most of the surface-membrane changes accompanying cell differentiation in the intestinal epithelial cells are localized in the luminal portion of their surface membrane.
A technique is described for the isolation of a plasma-membrane fraction from the rat intestinal epithelial cell which is distinct from the microvillus membrane of that cell. The isolated fraction contains only about 0.2% of the sucrase activity in the original homogenate and negligible quantities of nuclear and mitochondrial membrane markers. It contains 12% of the total Na + ,K + -dependent adenosine triphosphatase and 7% of the alkaline phosphatase, with significant increments in specific activity of these enzymes. Multiple membrane preparations were highly reproducible with respect to the specific activities of the markers studied. The small intestine of one rat yields material containing about 1.3mg of protein. In addition an assay is described suitable for determining 5′-nucleotidase in the small intestine.
1. Rat intestinal microvillus plasma membranes were prepared from previously isolated brush borders and the lipid composition was analysed. 2. The molar ratio of cholesterol to phospholipid was greatest in the membranes and closely resembled that reported for myelin. 3. Unesterified cholesterol was the major neutral lipid. However, 30% of the neutral lipid fraction was accounted for by glycerides and fatty acid. 4. Five phospholipid components were identified and measured, including phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, sphingomyelin and lysophosphatidylcholine. Though phosphatidylethanolamine was the chief phospholipid, no plasmalogen was detected. 5. In contrast with other plasma membranes in the rat, the polar lipids of the microvillus membrane were rich in glycolipid. The cholesterol:polar lipid (phospholipid+glycolipid) ratio was about 1:3 for the microvillus membrane. Published data suggest that this ratio resembles that of the liver plasma membrane more closely than myelin or the erythrocyte membrane. 6. The fatty acid composition of membrane lipids was altered markedly by a single feeding of safflower oil. Membrane polar lipids did not contain significantly more saturated fatty acids than cellular polar lipids. Differences in the proportion of some fatty acids in membrane and cellular glycerides were noted. These differences may reflect the presence of specific membrane glycerides.
1. A technique is described for the removal of subcellular contaminants from intact rat intestinal brush borders, and for the subsequent separation of a microvillus membrane fraction from a fibrillar residue. 2. Increments in invertase activity, microscopic homogeneity and low nucleic acid content indicate that the microvillus plasma membrane has been extensively purified. Multiple membrane preparations have been shown to be highly reproducible with respect to their invertase specific activity, cholesterol content and phospholipid content. Alkaline phosphatase, leucine aminopeptidase, Mg 2+ - and Ca 2+ -dependent adenosine triphosphatase and seven separate disaccharidases were shown to be predominantly confined to the membrane fraction. 3. The fibrillar fraction has been shown to contain approximately 30% of the total protein of purified brush borders, plus most of the residual nucleic acid contaminant. No evidence was found for the localization of any specific enzyme in this fraction.