Studies of Langendorff-perfused rat hearts have revealed a biphasic response of the mitochondrial respiratory chain to global ischaemia. The initial effect is a 30-40% increase in the rate of glutamate/malate oxidation after 10 min of ischaemia, owing to an increase in the capacity for NADH oxidation. This effect is followed by a progressive decrease in these oxidative activities as the ischaemia is prolonged, apparently owing to damage to Complex I at a site subsequent to the NADH dehydrogenase component. This damage is exacerbated by reperfusion, which causes a further decrease in Complex I activity and also decreases the activities of the other complexes, most notably of Complex III. Perfusion for up to 1 h with anoxic buffer produced only the increase in NADH oxidase activity, and neither anoxia alone, nor anoxia and reperfusion, caused loss of Complex I activity. Perfusing for 3-10 min with anoxic buffer before 1 h of global ischaemia had a significant protective effect against the ischaemia-induced damage to Complex I.
Rats were maintained on a riboflavin-deficient diet or on a diet containing clofibrate (0.5%, w/w). The activities of the mitochondrial FAD-dependent straight-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenases (butyryl-CoA, octanoyl-CoA and palmitoyl-CoA) and the branched-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenases (isovaleryl-CoA and isobutyryl-CoA) involved in the degradation of branched-chain acyl-CoA esters derived from branched-chain amino acids were assayed in liver mitochondrial extracts prepared in the absence and presence of exogenous FAD. These activities were low in livers from riboflavin-deficient rats (11, 28, 16, 6 and less than 2% of controls respectively) when prepared in the absence of exogenous FAD, and were not restored to control values when prepared in 25 microM-FAD (29, 47, 28, 7 and 17%). Clofibrate feeding increased the activities of butyryl-CoA, octanoyl-CoA and palmitoyl-CoA dehydrogenases (by 48, 116 and 98% of controls respectively), but not, by contrast, the activities of isovaleryl-CoA and isobutyryl-CoA dehydrogenases (62 and 102% of controls respectively). The mitochondrial fractions from riboflavin-deficient and from clofibrate-fed rats oxidized palmitoylcarnitine in State 3 at rates of 32 and 163% respectively of those from control rats.
1. The lethal, hypoglycaemic and hypothermic effects of hypoglycin in fasted rats are prevented if the rats had been fed on a diet containing clofibrate (0.5% w/w). 2. Injection of hypoglycin into fasted rats maintained on a standard diet caused severe prostration, hypothermia and a massive dicarboxylic aciduria [Tanaka (1972) J. Biol. Chem. 247, 7465-7478]. 3. Rats maintained on a diet containing clofibrate appeared normal after injection of hypoglycin, but had a marked dicarboxylic aciduria which was less than that induced in rats on a normal diet. 4. After administration of hypoglycin, butyryl-CoA and decanoyl-CoA, but not palmitoyl-CoA, dehydrogenase activities were strongly inhibited (80-95%) in the livers of animals on a standard diet. 5. Clofibrate feeding decreased the inhibition of these dehydrogenases to about 40-60%. 6. It was concluded that although clofibrate protects against the toxic effects of hypoglycin, some enzyme inhibitions as indicated by dicarboxylic aciduria are only partly prevented.