6-Phosphofructo-2-kinase (PFK-2) catalyses the synthesis of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P2), a potent stimulator of glycolysis. In chick-embryo fibroblasts, PFK-2 activity and Fru-2,6-P2 concentration increase upon transformation by Rous sarcoma virus. We show here that the increase in PFK-2 activity required more than 2 h after shifting fibroblasts infected with a thermosensitive mutant of Rous sarcoma virus from the restrictive to the permissive temperature. Pretreatment of the cells with actinomycin D prevented this increase in PFK-2 activity, suggesting a requirement for RNA synthesis. However, the increase in PFK-2 activity did not correspond to an increase in immunoprecipitable PFK-2. Moreover, the thermostability of PFK-2 and the affinity of this enzyme for its substrate fructose 6-phosphate were increased upon transformation by Rous sarcoma virus. Staurosporine, an inhibitor of protein kinase C, prevented the increase in PFK-2 activity brought about by the shift to the permissive temperature. This, together with a comparison of the effects of phorbol esters on PFK-2 activity, suggests that pp60v-src stimulates, via protein kinase C, the transcription of a gene whose products is a distinct PFK-2 isoenzyme or a protein that activates PFK-2.
Incubation of hepatocytes in conditions known to increase their volume, i.e. with amino acids or in hypo-osmotic media, resulted in the parallel activation of glycogen synthase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase. The activation of both enzymes by glutamine was antagonized by the addition of raffinose to prevent cell swelling, or by glucagon and microcystin. The findings are consistent with the involvement of a common mechanism for the activation of the two enzymes.
In hepatocytes from overnight-fasted rats incubated with glucose, palmitate decreased the production of lactate, the detritiation of [2-3H]- and [3-3H]-glucose, and the concentration of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate. Similarly, perfusion of hearts from fed rats with beta-hydroxybutyrate resulted in an inhibition of the detritiation of [3-3H]glucose and a fall in fructose 2,6-bisphosphate concentration. This fall could result from an increase in citrate (hepatocytes and heart) and sn-glycerol 3-bisphosphate concentration. It is suggested that a fall in fructose 2,6-bisphosphate concentration participates in the inhibition of glycolysis by fatty acids and ketone bodies.