The nucleoside AICAriboside (5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide riboside) has been shown to inhibit glycolysis in isolated rat hepatocytes [Vincent, Bontemps and Van den Berghe (1992) Biochem. J. 281, 267-272]. The effect is mediated by AICA-ribotide (ZMP), the product of the phosphorylation of AICA-riboside by adenosine kinase. To assess the cell-type specificity of the effect, studies were conducted in rabbit cardiomyocytes, human erythrocytes and rat hepatoma FTO-2B cells. AICA-riboside had no effect on glycolysis in cardiomyocytes, and a slight stimulatory effect in erythrocytes, but inhibited glycolysis by 65% at 250 microM concentration in FTO-2B cells, although only when tissue-culture medium was replaced by Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer. At 500 microM AICAriboside, ZMP remained undetectable in cardiomyocytes, but reached 0.65 mM in erythrocytes and 5 mM in FTO-2B cells. In the latter, AICAriboside provoked up to 2-fold elevations of glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate, accompanied by a decrease in fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. This indicated inhibition of 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (PFK-1). Accordingly, in FTO-2B cell-free extracts, the activity of PFK-1, measured under physiological conditions, was inhibited by approx. 70% by 5 mM ZMP. ZMP had a less pronounced effect on the activity of PFK-1 in normal rat liver; it did not influence the activity of PFK-1 in rat muscle, rabbit heart and human erythrocytes. It is concluded that the inhibitory effect of AICAriboside on glycolysis is dependent on both (1) the capacity of the cells to accumulate ZMP and (2) the presence of target enzymes which are sensitive to ZMP.
Previous work has shown that normoxic isolated rat hepatocytes continuously produce adenosine from AMP and that the nucleoside is not catabolized further but immediately rephosphorylated by adenosine kinase [Bontemps, Van den Berghe and Hers (1983) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 80, 2829-2833]. We now report the effect of anoxia on adenosine production and on the AMP/adenosine substrate cycle. In cell suspensions incubated in O2/CO2, the adenosine concentration was about 0.4 microM. It increased 30-fold in cells incubated in N2/CO2 or with 5 mM KCN, and 20-fold in cells incubated with 2 mM amytal. Adenosine production, measured in hepatocytes in which adenosine kinase and adenosine deaminase were inhibited by 5-iodotubercidin and deoxycoformycin respectively, was about 18 nmol/min per g of cells in normoxia; it increased about 2-fold in anoxia, although AMP increased 8-16-fold in this condition. From studies with inhibitors of membrane 5′-nucleotidase and of S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase, it was deduced that adenosine is produced by the latter enzyme and by cytosolic 5′-nucleotidase in normoxia, and by cytosolic and membrane 5′-nucleotidases in anoxia. Unlike in normoxic hepatocytes, inhibition of adenosine kinase by 5-iodotubercidin neither elevated the adenosine concentration nor enhanced total purine release from adenine nucleotides in cells treated with N2/CO2 or KCN; it had only a slight effect in cells treated with amytal. This indicates that recycling of adenosine is suppressed or profoundly inhibited in anoxia. The rate of accumulation of adenosine in anoxia was several-fold lower than the rate of its rephosphorylation upon reoxygenation. It is concluded that the elevation of adenosine in anoxic hepatocytes is much more dependent on decreased recycling of adenosine by adenosine kinase than on increased production by dephosphorylation of AMP.
5-Amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide riboside (AICAriboside; Z-riboside), the nucleotide corresponding to AICAribotide (AICAR or ZMP), an intermediate of the ‘de novo’ pathway of purine nucleotide biosynthesis, has been shown to inhibit gluconeogenesis in isolated rat hepatocytes [Vincent, Marangos, Gruber & Van den Berghe (1991) Diabetes 40, 1259-1266]. We now report that glycosis is also inhibited and even more sensitive to AICAriboside in these cells. In hepatocyte suspensions from fasted rats, production of lactate from 15 mM-glucose was half-maximally inhibited by 25-50 microM-AICAriboside. AICAriboside influenced two regulatory steps of glycolysis: (1) it decreased the release of 3H2O from [2-3H]glucose and the concentrations of both glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate, indicating that it diminished the phosphorylation of glucose by glucokinase; (2) it decreased the concentration of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P2), the main physiological stimulator of liver 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase. Further studies showed that AICAriboside induced an inactivation of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase, the enzyme that produces Fru-2,6-P2, without affecting the concentration of cyclic AMP. Similarly to the inhibiton of gluconeogenesis by AICAriboside, the inhibition of glycolysis became apparent after an approx. 10 min latency and persisted when the cells were washed after addition of AICAriboside, strongly suggesting that the effects were also exerted by the Z-nucleotides, which accumulate after addition of AICAriboside to hepatocytes. An increased uptake of lactate was evident when 50-200 microM-AICAriboside was added 15 min after addition of glucose. This can be explained by the higher sensitivity of glycolysis, as compared with gluconeogenesis, to inhibition by AICAriboside, and reveals the simultaneous operation of both processes.
The hepatic metabolism of hypoxanthine was investigated by studying both the fate of labelled hypoxanthine, added at micromolar concentrations to isolated rat hepatocyte suspensions, and the kinetic properties of purified hypoxanthine/guanine phosphoribosyltransferase from rat liver. More than 80% of hypoxanthine was oxidized towards allantoin; less than 5% of the label was incorporated into the purine mononucleotides, and a similar proportion appeared transiently in inosine. The maximal velocity of oxidation (approx. 750nmol/min per g of cells) was in close agreement with the known activity of xanthine oxidase in liver extracts. In contrast, the maximal velocity of the incorporation of labelled hypoxanthine into mononucleotides reached only 30nmol/min per g of cells, compared with an activity of hypoxanthine/guanine phosphoribosyltransferase, measured at substrate concentrations analogous to those prevailing intracellularly, of 500nmol/min per g of cells. Hypoxanthine incorporation into the mononucleotides was decreased by allopurinol, anoxia and ethanol, despite inhibition of its oxidation under these conditions; it was increased by incubation of the cells in supraphysiological concentrations of Pi. Allopurinol and anoxia decreased the concentration of phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate inside the cells by respectively 40 and 60%, ethanol had no effect on the concentration of this metabolite and Pi increased its concentration up to 10-fold. The kinetic study of purified hypoxanthine/guanine phosphoribosyltransferase showed that a mixture of ATP, IMP, GMP and GTP, at the concentrations prevailing in the liver cell, decreased the V max. of the enzyme 6-fold, increased its Km for hypoxanthine from 1 to 4 microM and its Km for phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate from 2.5 to 25 microM. In the presence of 5 microM-hypoxanthine and 2.5 microM-phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate, the mixture of nucleotides inhibited the activity of purified hypoxanthine/guanine phosphoribosyltransferase by 95%. It is concluded that this inhibition results in a limited participation of hypoxanthine/guanine phosphoribosyltransferase in the control of the production of allantoin by the liver.