The concentration of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate and the activity of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase are increased after infection of chick-embryo fibroblasts with the Rous sarcoma virus, or with a temperature-sensitive mutant of this virus at the permissive, but not at the non-permissive, temperature. This is observed after transformation by retroviruses carrying either the v-src or v-fps, but not the v-mil and/or v-myc, oncogenes. Comparison of the effects of the Rous sarcoma virus with those of phorbol myristate acetate on fructose 2,6-bisphosphate suggests that both result from the stimulation of a step which is rate-limiting for 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase activation and which is also controlled by protein kinase C.
Glutamine caused a dose-dependent decrease in fructose 2,6-bisphosphate concentration in both HeLa cells and chick-embryo fibroblasts. The effect was complete within 15 min in HeLa cells, but required more than 9 h in the fibroblasts. Half-maximal effects were obtained with 0.1-0.3 mM-glutamine. In chick-embryo fibroblasts, but not in HeLa cells, glutamine induced a time-dependent decrease in the activity of phosphofructokinase-2, which correlated with the decrease in fructose 2,6-bisphosphate. Glutamine decreased the glycolytic flux by about 25% only in chick-embryo fibroblasts. The difference in glycolytic response between the two types of cells might correspond to a difference in the sensitivity of phosphofructokinase-1 for fructose 2,6-bisphosphate. In HeLa cells, glutamine caused a 2-3-fold stimulation of the synthesis of glycogen, a 50% decrease in the concentration of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and a more than 80% decrease in the concentration of 5-phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate; the concentrations of hexose 6-phosphates and ATP were not affected.