Bovine central-nervous-system myelin was found to contain both Ca2+-activated and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases. Each enzyme possesses unique solubility and substrate-specificity characteristics. The Ca2+-activated enzyme, like its substrate (basic protein), is probably deeply embedded in the neural membrane, whereas the cyclic AMP-dependent kinase appears to be much less tightly associated with myelin. Treatment of insoluble myelin fraction housing the Ca2+-activated kinase with phospholipase A2 and phospholipases A2 + C causes a decrease in its ability to become activated by Ca2+. This can be countered by phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine. Whereas the activity of the Ca2+-activated membrane-associated kinase is inhibited by chlorpromazine, dibucaine, melittin and Triton X-100, it is activated by certain phorbol diesters (4 beta-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, 4 beta-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate, 4 beta-phorbol 12,13-dibenzoate and 4 beta-phorbol 12,13-diacetate), which appear to exert this effect by lowering the concentration of Ca2+ normally required for the activation of this enzyme. Together these results suggest that the activation of the membrane-associated kinase by Ca2+ most probably requires certain lipids, perhaps those already present in the membrane.
The phosphotransferase system of human central-nervous-system myelin was investigated. Evidence obtained indicated the presence of at least two different phosphotransferase systems (cyclic nucleotide-dependent and -independent) in myelin, which were found to be firmly associated with the membrane. The cyclic AMP-dependent kinase of myelin and white-matter cytosol preferentially phosphorylated certain histone fractions and displayed only modest activity with basic protein as substrate. On the other hand, the cyclic nucleotide-independent system showed specificity toward basic protein. Its activity was not only dependent on Mg2+ but it was greatly enhanced by this bivalent cation. Whereas the cyclic nucleotide-dependent kinase could be extracted with buffers containing Triton X-100, the bivalent cation-regulated kinase resisted solubilization from myelin under these conditions.