Resident mouse peritoneal macrophages have three phospholipase activities: a phospholipase A2 active at pH 4.5, a Ca2+-dependent phospholipase A2 active at pH 8.5 and a phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C activity. When macrophages are exposed to zymosan in culture, the cellular activity of pH-4.5 phospholipase A2 is diminished in a manner dependent on zymosan concentration and time of exposure, whereas the cellular activities of pH-8.5 phospholipase A2 and phospholipase C remain unchanged. The depletion of pH-4.5 phospholipase A2 activity from the cell is paralleled by a quantitative recovery of this activity in the culture medium in a manner similar to the cellular depletion and extracellular recovery of two lysosomal enzymes. This release is specifically elicited by an inflammatory substance such as zymosan, since macrophages incubated with 6 micrometer latex spheres retain pH-4.5 phospholipase A2 activity and lysosomal enzyme activities intracellularly.
Resident mouse peritoneal macrophages synthesize and release large amounts of prostaglandins in response to inflammatory stimuli. Release of prostaglandin E2 and 6-oxoprostaglandin F1 alpha occurs at a rate of 1 nmol/h per mg of cell protein. The mechanisms by which substrate arachidonic acid is released have yet to be established. We have therefore initiated studies to characterize those enzymes that can catalyse its release from phospholipid and may be of significance at the cellular level. We report initially the characterization of two phospholipase A2 activities in homogenates of mouse peritoneal macrophages. The first is active at pH 4.5 and is not dependent on Ca2+. The second is Ca2+-dependent and is optimally active at pH 8.5. Either phospholipase A2 activity is capable of hydrolysing [14C] arachidonic acid from [14C] arachidonic acid-labelled phospholipids in quantities sufficient to account for the amounts of prostaglandins by macrophages in culture. Phospholipid substrates are prepared from mouse LM fibroblasts in serum-free Higuchi medium containing radiolabelled phospholipid precursors. Single-labelled phospholipids bear the 14C label in the arachidonic acid moiety. Dual-labelled phospholipids bear a 14C label in the polar head group and a 3H label in the arachidonic acid moiety. Experiments with dual-labelled substrates establish that both phospholipase activities are of the A2 type as indicated by the equimolar recovery of [3H] arachidonic acid and [14C] lysophospholipid. Studies with aqueous sonicated dispersions of purified [14C] arachidonic acid-labelled phospholipid or mixed liposomal substrates formed from mixtures of cellular polar lipids reveal that the pH 4.5 activity hydrolyses phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine more efficiently when they are present in a mixture of other polar lipids. The pH 8.5 activity, however, hydrolyses the purified phospholipids more efficiently.
Macrophages isolated from the peritoneal cavity of untreated mice and maintained in tissue culture synthesize and release prostaglandins when challenged with zymosan. These cells also selectively release lysosomal acid hydrolases under the same conditions. The major prostaglandins released into the media are found to be prostaglandins E1, E2 and 6-oxoprostaglandin F1a, whereas prostaglandin F2a is not detected. Macrophages isolated from mice that have received an intraperitoneal injection of thioglycollate broth are far less responsive to zymosan challenge. These cells require 300 microgram of zymosan to synthesize and release one-third the amount of prostaglandins released from non-stimulated macrophages exposed to 50 microgram of zymosan. In addition, thioglycollate-stimulated macrophages release less than 10% of their lysosomal acid hydrolases when exposed to 300 microgram of zymosan whereas non-stimulated cells release approximately 50% of these enzymes after treatment with 50 microgram of zymosan. The zymosan-stimulated synthesis and release of prostaglandins are completely inhibited by indomethacin, whereas the increased selective release of lysosomal acid hydrolases is not affected. Macrophages, unlike fibroblasts, do not synthesize and release prostaglandins when exposed to serum or to bradykinin.