Expression of the oncodevelopmental protein, placental alkaline phosphatase, was observed in DoT cells, an epidermoid cell line derived from cervical carcinoma. Under normal conditions of growth in vitro, biochemical inhibition, cytochemical and immunological studies revealed that these cells express the term-placental (Regan) isoenzyme. Thus alkaline phosphatase activity was observed to be heat-stable and inhibited by L-phenylalanine. These properties, supported by immunoelectrophoretic analysis using antisera specific for liver, intestinal or term-placental isoenzymes, identified the isoenzyme as placental type. DoT cells treated with prednisolone (1 microgram/ml) increased total alkaline phosphatase specific activity. This activity was also identified as term-placental phosphatase isoenzyme. On the other hand, treatment of the same cells with sodium butyrate (1 mM) did not induce increased activity of the term-placental isoenzyme, an unexpected observation. As a result of these studies, DoT cells are proposed as a representative cell line for studies of the regulation of oncodevelopmental gene expression in human tumour cells of cervical origin.
Quantification of term-placental alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme protein in HeLa TCRC-1 cells grown in the presence and absence of prednisolone indicates that there is a net increase in amount of enzyme-specific protein in prednisolone-stimulated cells. In a similar analysis of HeLa D98AH2 cells, prednisolone treatment causes the appearance of term-placental alkaline phosphatase protein and the loss of the intestinal isoenzyme protein. These results support the interpretation that the response of these cells to corticosteroids is the net accumulation of alkaline phosphatase protein rather than the modification of pre-existing enzyme to a more active state.
l -Tryptophan, but not d -tryptophan, inhibits human placental and intestinal alkaline phosphatases, but not those of liver and bone. The nature of this stereospecific organ-specific inhibition has been elucidated. Thus, from a study of the effect of substrate concentration on inhibition in which double-reciprocal plots of 1/ v versus 1/ s at various inhibitor concentrations were made, this inhibition is judged to be ‘uncompetitive’. That the inhibition is non-allosteric is an opinion based on (1) hyperbolic curves obtained from plotting the percentage inhibition against inhibitor concentration; (2) the independence of the inhibition to heat denaturation and urea treatment; (3) the relatively low value of entropy change; and (4) a value close to unity for n , the number of l -tryptophan molecules that combine with one molecule of enzyme. Finally, a homosteric mechanism is further postulated for the inhibition by l -tryptophan based on the increase of optimum temperature for maximum velocity and the decrease of this inhibition with increasing temperature. The mechanism of this inhibition is discussed.