Phosphoinositide signals regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, cytoskeletal rearrangement and intracellular trafficking. Hydrolysis of PtdIns(4,5)P2 and PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, by inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases regulates synaptic vesicle recycling (synaptojanin-1), hematopoietic cell function [SHIP1(SH2-containing inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase-1)], renal cell function [OCRL (oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe)] and insulin signalling (SHIP2). We present here a detailed review of the characteristics of the ten mammalian 5-phosphatases. Knockout mouse phenotypes and underexpression studies are associated with significant phenotypic changes, indicating non-redundant roles, despite, in many cases, overlapping substrate specificity and tissue expression. The extraordinary complexity in the control of phosphoinositide signalling continues to be revealed.
The Biochemical Society's Annual Symposium, The Cell Biology of Inositol Lipids and Phosphates, was held at the University of Birmingham on 29-31 March 2006.