ROS (reactive oxygen species; including superoxide and H 2 O 2 ) are conventionally thought of as being broadly reactive and cytotoxic. Phagocytes utilize an NADPH oxidase to generate large amounts of ROS, and exploit their toxic properties as a host-defence mechanism to kill invading microbes. However, the recent discovery of the Nox and Duox enzymes that are expressed in many non-phagocytic cells implies that the 'deliberate' generation of ROS has additional cellular roles, which are currently incompletely understood. Functions of ROS in mammals have been inferred primarily from cell-culture experiments, and include signalling for mitogenic growth, apoptosis and angiogenesis. Nox/Duox enzymes may also provide H 2 O 2 as a substrate for peroxidase enzymes (or, in the case of Duox, for its own peroxidase domain), thereby supporting peroxidative reactions. A broad comparison of biological functions of ROS and Nox enzymes across species and kingdoms provides insights into possible functions in mammals. To further understand novel biological roles for Nox/Duox enzymes, we are manipulating the expression of Nox/Duox enzymes in model organisms including Caenorhabditis elegans , Drosophila melanogaster and mouse. This chapter focuses on new insights into the roles of Nox enzymes gained from these approaches.