Short-term regulation of insulin gene transcription is still a matter of debate. However, an increasing body of evidence shows that insulin gene transcription is affected by signals, such as incretins, glucose metabolites, intracellular Ca2+, and by insulin secreted from pancreatic β-cells, all supporting the concept of an immediate response resulting in insulin gene transcription following food-uptake. The present review aims to summarize the current view on the mechanisms underlying the up-regulation of insulin gene transcription in response to glucose, the major nutrient factor in insulin secretion and biosynthesis.

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