This paper describes the role 14-3-3 proteins play in vertebrate photoneuroendocrine transduction. 14-3-3 proteins form a complex with arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT), the enzyme which turns melatonin production on during the day and off at night. Complex formation is triggered at night by cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of the enzyme, and results in activation and protection against proteolysis. This enhances melatonin production > 10-fold. Light exposure results in dephosphorylation of the enzyme and disassociation from 14-3-3, leading to destruction and a rapid drop in melatonin production and release and circulating levels.
14-3-3 Proteins and photoneuroendocrine transduction: role in controlling the daily rhythm in melatonin
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D. C. Klein, S. Ganguly, S. Coon, J. L. Weller, T. Obsil, A. Hickman, F. Dyda; 14-3-3 Proteins and photoneuroendocrine transduction: role in controlling the daily rhythm in melatonin. Biochem Soc Trans 1 August 2002; 30 (4): 365–373. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/bst0300365
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