FA (fatty acid) recycling in adipose tissue appears to be an important pathway for regulating FA release into the blood during fasting. Re-esterification requires G3P (glycerol 3-phosphate), which cannot be synthesized from glucose because glycolysis is much reduced under such circumstances. In addition, G3P can scarcely originate from glycerol since glycerol kinase has a very low activity in white adipose tissue. It was shown about 35 years ago that a metabolic pathway named glyceroneogenesis, which allows G3P synthesis from non-carbohydrate precursors like pyruvate, lactate or amino acids, is activated during fasting. The major enzyme in this pathway was shown to be PEPCK-C [cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP); EC]. The present review analyses the mechanisms by which a series of hormones and nutrients affect PEPCK-C gene transcription and glyceroneogenesis and describes evidence for dysregulation of this pathway in type 2 diabetes.

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