Fatty acid–bile acid conjugates (FABACs) were shown recently to have important and multiple effects on cholesterol metabolism. In human fibroblasts, they were found to markedly enhance cholesterol efflux by an ATP-binding cassette transporter A1-dependent pathway. In C57L/J mice, they increased CYP7A1 activity and RNA expression, while decreasing moderately 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity. In C57L/J mice and in hamsters, they also decreased serum cholesterol levels, whereas in other animals, this effect was not seen in short-term experiments. In the present study, we investigated potential mechanisms of action of arachidyl amido cholanoic acid (Aramchol), with particular reference to biliary and faecal sterol outputs in rats. Supplementation with Aramchol at a dose of 150 mg·kg−1·day−1 increased neutral sterol output by approx. 50%, while the faecal outputs of bile salts and total sterols increased by almost 2-fold. Biliary lipid outputs were not significantly different between the control and FABAC-supplemented animals. These findings indicate an overall catabolic effect of FABACs on body cholesterol.

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