Stimulation with diverse agents activates the NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) transcription factor, affecting inflammatory and immune responses, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and tumourigenesis. Determining how NF-κB elicits such distinct responses is essential to understanding NF-κB function in diseased tissues. Recent developments illustrating that post-translational modification of NF-κB subunits influences their nuclear role are discussed. These observations suggest that diagnosis and new therapies based on reprogramming NF-κB activity could be more efficient than total NF-κB inhibition.

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