Over the last 10 years, during the lifetime of the nitrogen cycle meetings, structural biology, coupled with spectroscopy, has had a major impact of our understanding enzymology of the nitrogen cycle. The three-dimensional structures for many of the key enzymes have now been resolved and have provided a wealth of information regarding the architecture of redox active metal sites, as well as revealing novel structural folds. Coupled with structure-based spectroscopic analysis, this has led to new insight into the reaction mechanisms of the diverse chemical transformations that together cycle nitrogen in the biosphere. An overview of the some of the key developments in field over the last decade is presented.

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