The enzyme GK (glucokinase), which phosphorylates glucose to form glucose 6-phosphate, serves as the glucose sensor of insulin-producing β-cells. GK has thermodynamic, kinetic, regulatory and molecular genetic characteristics that are ideal for its glucose sensor function and allow it to control glycolytic flux of the β-cells as indicated by control-, elasticity- and response-coefficients close to or larger than 1.0. GK operates in tandem with the K+ and Ca2+ channels of the β-cell membrane, resulting in a threshold for glucose-stimulated insulin release of approx. 5 mM, which is the set point of glucose homoeostasis for most laboratory animals and humans. Point mutations of GK cause ‘glucokinase disease’ in humans, which includes hypo- and hyper-glycaemia syndromes resulting from activating or inactivating mutations respectively. GK is allosterically activated by pharmacological agents (called GK activators), which lower blood glucose in normal animals and animal models of T2DM. On the basis of crystallographic studies that identified a ligand-free ‘super-open’ and a liganded closed structure of GK [Grimsby, Sarabu, Corbett and others (2003) Science 301, 370–373; Kamata, Mitsuya, Nishimura, Eiki and Nagata (2004) Structure 12, 429–438], on thermostability studies using glucose or mannoheptulose as ligands and studies showing that mannoheptulose alone or combined with GK activators induces expression of GK in pancreatic islets and partially preserves insulin secretory competency, a new hypothesis was developed that GK may function as a metabolic switch per se without involvement of enhanced glucose metabolism. Current research has the goal to find molecular targets of this putative ‘GK-switch’. The case of GK research illustrates how basic science may culminate in therapeutic advances of human medicine.
Glucokinase and glucose homeostasis: proven concepts and new ideas
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D. Zelent, H. Najafi, S. Odili, C. Buettger, H. Weik-Collins, C. Li, N. Doliba, J. Grimsby, F.M. Matschinsky; Glucokinase and glucose homeostasis: proven concepts and new ideas. Biochem Soc Trans 1 February 2005; 33 (1): 306–310. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/BST0330306
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