A widely studied example of vertebrate plasticity is LTP (long-term potentiation), the persistent synaptic enhancement that follows a brief period of coinciding pre- and post-synaptic activity. During LTP, different kinases, including CaMKII (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II) and protein kinase A, become activated and play critical roles in induction and maintenance of enhanced transmission. Biochemical analyses have revealed several regulated phosphorylation sites in the AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) receptor subunits, GluR1 and GluR4. The regulated insertion of these receptors is a key event in the induction of LTP. Here, we discuss the phosphorylation of GluR1 and GluR4 and its role in receptor delivery and neuronal plasticity.

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