Myostatin, or GDF-8 (growth and differentiation factor-8), was first identified through sequence identity with members of the BMP (bone morphogenetic protein)/TGF-β (transforming growth factor-β) superfamily. The skeletal-muscle-specific expression pattern of myostatin suggested a role in muscle development. Mice with a targeted deletion of the myostatin gene exhibit a hypermuscular phenotype. In addition, inactivating mutations in the myostatin gene have been identified in ‘double muscled’ cattle breeds, such as the Belgian Blue and Piedmontese, as well as in a hypermuscular child. These findings define myostatin as a negative regulator of skeletal-muscle development. Myostatin binds with high affinity to the receptor serine threonine kinase ActRIIB (activin type IIB receptor), which initiates signalling through a smad2/3-dependent pathway. In an effort to validate myostatin as a therapeutic target in a post-embryonic setting, a neutralizing antibody was developed by screening for inhibition of myostatin binding to ActRIIB. Administration of this antimyostatin antibody to adult mice resulted in a significant increase in both muscle mass and functional strength. Importantly, similar results were obtained in a murine model of muscular dystrophy, the mdx mouse. Unlike the myostatin-deficient animals, which exhibit both muscle hypertrophy and hyperplasia, the antibody-treated mice demonstrate increased musculature through a hypertrophic mechanism. These results validate myostatin inhibition as a therapeutic approach to muscle wasting diseases such as muscular dystrophy, sarcopenic frailty of the elderly and amylotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Conference Article| October 26 2005
Myostatin: a modulator of skeletal-muscle stem cells
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F.S. Walsh, A.J. Celeste; Myostatin: a modulator of skeletal-muscle stem cells. Biochem Soc Trans 26 October 2005; 33 (6): 1513–1517. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/BST0331513
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