Nowadays, there is no effective treatment for many retinal disorders. Knowledge of the genetic basis of many severe ocular diseases may allow for alternative treatments by gene therapy. Non-viral gene complexes, such as lipo- and poly-plexes, can be delivered to the posterior segment, most often the target tissue, by intravitreal or subretinal injection. Since subretinal injections are very invasive, intravitreal injection is a promising alternative route to deliver gene complexes into the eye. However, the drawback of this technique is the relative long distance the complexes have to travel through the vitreous gel before they reach the retina. This mini-review reports on how non-viral gene complexes behave in vitreous. It especially focuses on how the coating of lipoplexes with poly(ethylene glycol) influences their behaviour in vitreous and the transfection of retinal pigment epithelium.

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