Chronic lung disease is one of the most common causes of death and disability worldwide. This group of diseases is characterized by a protease burden, an infective process and a dominant pro-inflammatory profile. While SLPI (secretory leucoprotease inhibitor) was initially identified as a serine protease inhibitor, it has since been shown that SLPI possesses other properties distinct from those associated with its antiprotease capabilities that play an important role in protecting the host from infection and injury. In the course of this review, we will highlight the findings from a range of studies that illustrate the multiple functions of SLPI and its role in the resolution of the immune response.

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