There is emerging evidence that minor components from dietary oils can modulate or even improve events occurring in the development of atherosclerosis. One of the earliest events of the atherosclerotic process is endothelial dysfunction, which is an activation of the endothelium manifested by an increase in pro-inflammatory molecules, such as cytokines and adhesion molecules. Chylomicron remnants, such as LDL (low-density lipoprotein), are considered to be pro-atherogenic lipoproteins because they interact with endothelial cells and macrophages, increasing endothelial dysfunction mainly by the disturbance of the redox state in the cell. However, chylomicrons are, at the same time, the natural carriers of dietary lipids in plasma, which gives minor lipid components the opportunity to interact with the cells implicated in endothelial dysfunction and atherogenesis. Some of these components are known to exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic effects in vitro, even forming part of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins, such as chylomicrons.

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