Viral recognition is mediated by different classes of PRRs (pattern-recognition receptors) among which the TLRs (Toll-like receptors) and the RLHs [RIG (retinoic-acid-inducible)-like helicases] play major roles. The detection of PAMPs (pathogen-associated molecular patterns) by these PRRs leads to the initiation of signalling pathways that ultimately result in the activation of transcription factors such as NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) and IRF-3 [IFN (interferon) regulatory factor-3] and IRF-7 and the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and type I IFNs. Viruses have evolved a fine-tuned mechanism to evade detection by the immune system or to interfere with the resulting signalling pathways. Here, we discuss viral evasion proteins that specifically interfere with TLR and/or RLH signalling.

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