The mechanisms involved in the transition from androgen-dependent to androgen-independent PCa (prostate cancer) remain largely undefined. The AR (androgen receptor) is an androgen-dependent transcription factor and is thought to play an important role in the development of both androgen-dependent and -independent prostatic malignancy. AR-mediated transcription is regulated by the binding of various cofactor proteins to the AR that facilitate transcriptional initiation and elongation. Elucidating the mechanisms by which cofactors regulate AR transcriptional activity may reveal the therapeutic potential of cofactors in PCa. Current models of gene expression indicate that transcription and RNA processing are tightly coupled. In this review, we discuss how the ATP-dependent DEAD box RNA helicase p68, which has established roles in transcription and RNA processing, may function as an ‘adaptor’ or coupling protein to facilitate cross-talk between transcription and RNA processing in AR-regulated genes by controlling the rate of transcriptional initiation/elongation.

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