miRNAs (microRNAs) are important regulatory molecules that control gene expression in all eukaryotes. miRNAs play an essential role in basic cellular activities such as proliferation, differentiation, morphogenesis and apoptosis. In haemopoiesis, several miRNA-based pathways have been identified. Importantly, miRNA mutations or mis-expression correlate with various human diseases. In cancer, deregulated miRNAs can function as tumour suppressors or oncogenes. The present review focuses on the recent literature concerning the role of miRNAs in three different research areas: haematology, cardiology and oncology, with particular focus on the results obtained by our group.

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