Signalling through mTORC1 (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1) is important in controlling many cell functions, including protein synthesis, which it activates. mTORC1 signalling is activated by stimuli which promote protein accumulation such as anabolic hormones, growth factors and hypertrophic stimuli. mTORC1 signalling regulates several components of the protein synthetic machinery, including initiation and elongation factors, protein kinases which phosphorylate the ribosome and/or translation factors, and the translation of specific mRNAs. However, there are still important gaps in our understanding of the actions of mTORC1 and the relative contributions that different targets of mTORC1 make to the activation of protein synthesis remain to be established.

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