Carbohydrate microarray technologies are new developments at the frontier of glycomics that are showing great promise as tools for high-throughput analysis of carbohydrate-mediated interactions and the elucidation of carbohydrate ligands involved not only in endogenous receptor systems, but also pathogen–host interactions. The main advantage of microarray analysis is that a broad range of glycan sequences can be immobilized on solid matrices as minute spots and simultaneously interrogated. Different methodologies have emerged for constructing carbohydrate microarrays. The NGL (neoglycolipid)-based oligosaccharide microarray platform is among the relatively few systems that are beyond proof-of-concept and have provided new biological information. In the present article, I dwell, in some detail, on the NGL-based microarray. Highlights are the recent applications of NGL-based microarrays that have contributed to knowledge on the molecular basis of pathogen–host interactions, namely the assignments of the carbohydrate-binding specificities of several key surface-adhesive proteins of Toxoplasma gondii and other apicomplexan parasites, and the elucidation of receptor-binding specificities of the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 (H1N1pdm) virus compared with seasonal H1N1 virus.

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