NMs (nanomaterials), defined as materials with at least one dimension smaller than 100 nm, are able to induce genotoxic effects. One of the hypotheses of the mode-of-action in which they exert their genotoxic potential is to mechanically interfere with subcellular structures, in particular the microtubules. In the present paper, we review studies exploring interactions between NMs and tubulin; therefore a PubMed literature search was performed. From this search 12 studies, applying both acellular and cellular assays, were retrieved and are summarized according to endpoint and particle type. These studies show that there are interactions between different types of NMs and tubulins in both acellular and cellular systems. For several types of NMs, the multi-walled carbon nanotubes, amorphous SiO2, TiO2 and CoCr, an induction of aneuploidy was observed in vitro. There is, therefore, a critical need to assess the capacity of NMs to interfere with the cytoskeleton, and in particular the tubulins. This might require definition of relevant dosimetry, adaptations of some testing protocols, possibly development of new methodologies and studies on a larger size-range of NMs.

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