ϵ-Proteobacteria form a globally ubiquitous group of ecologically significant organisms and comprise a diverse range of host-associated and free-living species. To grow by anaerobic respiration, many ϵ-proteobacteria reduce nitrate to nitrite followed by either nitrite ammonification or denitrification. Using the ammonifying model organisms Wolinella succinogenes and Campylobacter jejuni, the electron transport chains of nitrate respiration, respiratory nitrite ammonification and even N2O (nitrous oxide) respiration have been characterized in recent years, but knowledge on nitrosative stress defence, nitrogen compound-sensing and corresponding signal transduction pathways is limited. The potentially dominant role of NssR (nitrosative stress-sensing regulator)-type transcription regulators in ϵ-proteobacterial nitrogen metabolism is discussed.

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