It has been less than two decades since anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) coupled to nitrite reduction has been discovered. Already, this process has been recognized as an important sink for fixed nitrogen in the natural environment and has been implemented as a cost-effective ammonium removal technology. Still, little is known about the molecular mechanism of this remarkable reaction. In this mini review, we present an insight into how ammonium and nitrite are combined to form dinitrogen gas.

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