A comprehensive understanding of ROS (reactive oxygen species)-dependent cellular interaction requires the previously unmet ability to simultaneously monitor the intra- and extra-cellular environments. The present review assesses the potential of novel electrochemical and fluorescent-based nanosensor approaches to address the limitations of existing techniques for ROS analysis. Data generated by these new approaches have already contributed significantly to current understanding of the roles that these species play in various in vitro scenarios. However, integration of these novel approaches has the potential to offer, for the first time, the unparalleled ability to measure simultaneously and in real-time ROS flux in both the intra- and extra-cellular environments.

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