Chronic neurohormonal stimulation can have direct adverse effects on the structure and function of the heart. Heart failure develops and progresses as a result of the deleterious changes. It is well established that phosphorylation of class II HDAC5 (histone deacetylase 5) is an important event in the transcriptional regulation of cardiac gene reprogramming that results in the hypertrophic growth response. To date, experimentation on phosphorylation-mediated translocation of HDAC5 has focused on the regulatory properties of PKD (protein kinase D) within intact cells. With regard to the potential role of PKD in myocardium, recent observations raise the possibility that PKD-mediated myocardial regulatory mechanisms may represent promising therapeutic avenues for the treatment of heart failure. The present review summarizes the most recent and important insights into the role of PKD in hypertrophic signalling pathways.

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